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Volume 17, Number 3—March 2011

Dispatch

Tuberculosis among Foreign-born Persons, Singapore, 2000–2009

Khin Mar Kyi WinComments to Author , Cynthia B.E. Chee, Liang Shen, Yee T. Wang, and Jeffery Cutter
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (K.M. Kyi Win, C.B.E. Chee, Y.T. Wang); National University of Singapore, Singapore (L. Shen); Ministry of Health, Singapore (J. Cutter)

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Table

Characteristics of native-born and foreign-born persons with TB, Singapore, 2000–2009*

Characteristic No. (%) native-born, n = 13,048 No. (%) foreign-born, n = 5,952
Sex
F 3,546 (27.2) 2,731 (45.9)
M
9,502 (72.8)
3,221 (54.1)
Age, y
Median 53.2 33.8
0–19 516 (4.0) 149 (2.5)
20–39 2,592 (19.9) 3,503 (58.9)
40–59 5,137 (39.4) 812 (13.6)
>60
4,803 (36.8)
1,488 (25.0)
Diabetes
No 10,282 (78.8) 5,409 (90.9)
Yes
2,766 (21.2)
543 (9.1)
New case 11,550 (88.5) 5,588 (93.9)
Re-treated case
1,498 (11.5)
364 (6.1)
Site of disease
Pulmonary† 11,447 (87.7) 4,832 (81.2)
Extrapulmonary
1,601 (12.3)
1,120 (18.8)
Site of extrapulmonary TB‡
Lymph node 571 (35.7) 582 (52.0)
Pleura 415 (25.9) 258 (23.0)
Other
698 (43.6)
328 (29.3)
Sputum smear for AFB
Negative 5,744 (44.0) 2,790 (46.9)
Positive 4,784 (36.7) 1,532 (25.7)
Not determined
2,520 (19.3)
1,630 (27.4)
Sputum culture for MTC
Negative 3,075 (23.6) 1,819 (30.6)
Positive 8,316 (63.7) 2,855 (48.0)
Not determined
1,657 (12.7)
1,278 (21.5)
Drug resistance
MDR§ 28 (0.3) 39 (1.4)
Isoniazid¶ 256 (3.1) 226 (7.9)

*TB, tuberculosis; AFB, acid-fast bacilli; MTC, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex; MDR, multidrug resistant.
†Includes pulmonary TB cases with extrapulmonary involvement.
‡Pure extrapulmonary and not mutually exclusive.
§Resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin.
¶Includes MDR; resistant to isoniazid alone or isoniazid in combination with any other first-line drugs.

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