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Volume 17, Number 3—March 2011

Dispatch

Isoniazid-Resistant Tuberculous Meningitis, United States, 1993–2005

Christopher VinnardComments to Author , Carla A. Winston, E. Paul Wileyto, Rob Roy MacGregor, and Gregory P. Bisson
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA (C. Vinnard, E.P. Wileyto, R.R. MacGregor, G.P. Bisson); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (C.A. Winston)

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Table 1

Unadjusted analysis of factors associated with initial isoniazid resistance in tuberculosis disease, United States, 1993–2005*

Patient characteristics No. cases with isoniazid resistance/total no. cases (%) OR (95% CI) p value
Origin†
US-born 40/926 (4) Reference
Foreign-born
69/674 (10)
2.53 (1.66–3.88)
<0.01
Age category, y <0.01
<1 1/57 (2) 0.14 (0–0.86)
1–<4 4/94 (4) 0.34 (0.08–1.00)
4–<14 3/50 (6) 0.49 (0.09–1.67)
14–<24 8/111 (7) 0.59 (0.23–1.38)
24–<34 31/268 (12) Reference
34–<44 29/344 (8) 0.70 (0.40–1.24)
44–<54 14/247 (6) 0.46 (0.22–0.92)
55–<64 11/157 (7) 0.58 (0.25–1.22)
64–74 5/159 (3) 0.25 (0.07–0.66)
>74
3/127 (2)
0.18 (0.04–0.61)

Race category
White, non-Hispanic 14/240 (6) Reference 0.03
Black, non-Hispanic 27/578 (5) 0.79 (0.39–1.66)
Hispanic 38/489 (8) 1.36 (0.70–2.78)
Asian/Native Hawaiian, non-Hispanic 28/276 (10) 1.82 (0.90–3.84)
American Indian, non-Hispanic
0/16
0 (0–4.02)

HIV status‡
Negative 32/487 (7) Reference
Positive
26/362 (7)
1.10 (0.62–1.95)
0.73
Sex
F 48/650 (7) Reference
M
61/964 (6)
0.85 (0.56–1.28)
0.41
Homeless within the previous year
No 99/1,426 (7) Reference
Yes
3/74 (4)
0.57 (0.11–1.78)
0.48
Resident of a long-term care facility at diagnosis
No 105/1,491 (7) Reference
Yes
2/67 (3)
0.41 (0.05–1.57)
0.20
Resident of a correctional facility at diagnosis
No 106/1,561 (7) Reference
Yes
3/43 (7)
1.03 (0.20–3.32)
0.96
Pulmonary disease
No 69/1,068 (6) Reference
Yes
40/546 (7)
1.14 (0.74–1.74)
0.51
Abnormal chest radiograph results
No 48/690 (7) Reference
Yes
58/835 (7)
1.00 (0.66–1.52)
0.99
Positive smear (nonsputum site)
No 71/985 (7) Reference
Yes
32/434 (7)
1.02 (0.64–1.61)
0.91
Positive tuberculin skin test result
No 24/433 (5) Reference
Yes 36/520 (7) 1.33 (0.75–2.38) 0.30

*OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
†US-born persons were defined as persons born in the United States, Puerto Rico, or US outlying area, or born abroad to American parents; all other persons were defined as foreign-born.
‡California reported only patients matched to the California AIDS registry from 1993–2004 as HIV positive; all other California patients are missing HIV status.

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