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Volume 17, Number 4—April 2011

Dispatch

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Feral Raccoons, Japan

Taisuke HorimotoComments to Author , Ken Maeda, Shin Murakami, Maki Kiso, Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Mariko Sashika, Toshihiro Ito, Kazuo Suzuki, Mayumi Yokoyama, and Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (T. Horimoto, S. Murakami, M. Kiso, K. Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Y. Kawaoka); Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan (K. Maeda); Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido, Japan (M. Sashika); Tottori University, Tottori, Japan (T. Ito); Hikiiwa Park Center, Wakayama, Japan (K. Suzuki); Wildlife Management Research Center, Hyogo, Japan (M. Yokoyama)

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Figure 2

Neuraminidase (NA) inhibition by virus neutralization (VN)–positive raccoon serum samples. Each of the N1 to N9 viruses, consisting of A/whooper swan/Mongolia/4/05 (H5N1), A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2), A/whooper swan/Shimane/499/83 (H5N3), A/turkey/Ontario/6188/68 (H8N4), A/duck/Alberta/60/76 (H12N5), A/duck/England/56 (H11N6), A/seal/Massachusetts/1/80 (H7N7), A/duck/Ukraine/1/63 (H3N8), and A/duck/Memphis/546/74 (H11N9), was incubated with a VN-positive serum sample (A-6, B-2, or C-1) for 1 h at

Figure 2. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibition by virus neutralization (VN)–positive raccoon serum samples. Each of the N1 to N9 viruses, consisting of A/whooper swan/Mongolia/4/05 (H5N1), A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2), A/whooper swan/Shimane/499/83 (H5N3), A/turkey/Ontario/6188/68 (H8N4), A/duck/Alberta/60/76 (H12N5), A/duck/England/56 (H11N6), A/seal/Massachusetts/1/80 (H7N7), A/duck/Ukraine/1/63 (H3N8), and A/duck/Memphis/546/74 (H11N9), was incubated with a VN-positive serum sample (A-6, B-2, or C-1) for 1 h at 37°C, and viral NA activity was then measured (6). Data are shown as percentage of activities compared with incubation with VN-negative serum samples (100%). Three independent tests were performed, and significant reduction of NA activity (p<0.05, t test with 2-tailed analysis) was observed only for N1 virus (*). HA, hemagglutinin. Error bars indicate SDs of 3 independent tests.

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