Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Volume 17, Number 6—June 2011

Letter

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and HIV Infection

Shireesha DhanireddyComments to Author , Robert D. Harrington, Heidi M. Crane, Matthew R. Gingo, Alison Morris, Laurence Huang, and Kristina Crothers
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA (S. Dhanireddy, R.D. Harrington, H.M. Crane, K. Crothers); University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA (M.R. Gingo, A. Morris); University of California, San Francisco, California, USA (L. Huang)

Main Article

Table

Baseline characteristics for HIV-infected patients with pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Seattle, Washington, USA, 2009*

Patient characteristics All patients,
n = 23 Inpatients,
n = 8 Outpatients,
n = 15 p value†
Demographics
Male sex 19 (83) 5 (63) 14 (93) 0.1
Median age, y (range) 43 (22–72) 46 (34–72) 42 (22–64) 0.5
Race/ethnicity 1.0
White 14 (61) 5 (63) 9 (60)
Black 5 (22) 2 (25) 3 (20)
Hispanic 4 (17) 0 4 (27) 1.0
Other/refused to answer
4 (17)
1 (13)
3 (20)

History
Received 2009–10 seasonal influenza vaccine before illness 14 (61) 6 (75) 8 (53) 0.1
Ever smoked
15 (65)
7 (88)
8 (53)
0.2
HIV-associated factors
CD4 count, cells/µL, median (range) 308 (32–1,024) 147 (32–1,024) 438 (119–833) 0.06
Undetectable HIV-1 RNA 19 (83) 6 (75) 13 (87) 0.6
Receiving antiretroviral therapy
21 (91)
8 (100)
13 (87)
0.5
Predisposing risk factors 15 (65) 6 (75) 9 (60) 0.5
Prior lung disease 8 (35) 5 (63) 3 (20) 0.07
Cardiovascular disease 4 (17) 3 (38) 1 (6.7) 0.1
Obesity, body mass index >30 4 (17) 1 (13) 3 (20) 1.0
Neutropenia 3 (13) 2 (25) 1 (6.7) 0.3
Receiving immunosuppressive agent 3 (13) 3 (38) 0 0.03
Malignancy 4 (17) 2 (25) 2 (13) 0.6
Diabetes
2 (8.7)
0
2 (13)
0.5
Signs and symptoms
Fever 18 (78) 7 (88) 11 (73) 0.6
Fatigue 5 (22) 2 (25) 3 (20) 1.0
Malaise 11 (48) 7 (88) 4 (27) 0.009
Myalgia 10 (43) 3 (38) 7 (47) 1.0
Sore throat 5 (22) 2 (25) 3 (20) 1.0
Cough 21 (91) 8 (100) 13 (87) 0.5
Dyspnea 8 (35) 4 (50) 4 (27) 0.4
Nausea/vomiting 10 (43) 2 (25) 8 (53) 0.4
Median duration of symptoms before seeking care, d (range)
4 (0–30)
4.5 (0–10)
3 (1–30)
0.6
Physical examination findings
Median temperature, °C (range) 38.0 (35.7–40.2) 39.1 (37.3–40.2) 37.7 (35.7–38.5) 0.001
Median heart rate, beats/min (range) 96 (69–129) 109 (80–127) 94 (69–129) 0.1
Mean arterial blood pressure, mm Hg (range) 94 (66–116) 89 (66–98) 97 (75–116) 0.05
Median respiratory rate, breaths/min (range) 20 (14–40) 22 (18–40) 19 (14–36) 0.04
Abnormal lung sounds
11 (48)
8 (100)
3 (23)
0.001
Laboratory findings
Leukocyte count, cells × 109/L (range) 4.53 (0.53–10.8) 3.2 (0.53–10.8) 5.4 (2.8–9.4) 0.4
Leukopenia, <5,000 cells/µL
9 (39)
5 (63)
4 (40)
0.6
Chest radiograph findings, new infiltrate
6 (26)
5 (63)
1 (13)
0.1
Care received
Antiviral treatment for influenza 21 (91) 8 (100) 13 (87) 0.5
Intensive care unit admission 3 (13) 3 (38) NA
Mechanical ventilation 2 (8.7) 2 (25) NA
Vasopressors
2 (8.7)
2 (25)
NA

Outcomes
Secondary pneumonia 3 (13) 3 (38) 0 0.03
Thrombotic complications 1 (4.6) 1 (13) 0 0.4
Died 2 (8.7) 2 (25) 0 0.1

*Values are no. (%) patients except as indicated. Among the 15 outpatients, 13 had a lung examination documented, 10 had a leukocyte count performed, and 8 had a chest radiograph taken. NA, not applicable.
†For comparison of characteristics between inpatients and outpatients.

Main Article

Top of Page

USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO