Co-infections of Plasmodium knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax among Humans and Anopheles dirus Mosquitoes, Southern Vietnam
Ron P. Marchand , Richard Culleton, Yoshimasa Maeno, Nguyen Tuyen Quang, and Shusuke Nakazawa
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Medical Committee Netherlands–Vietnam, Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam (R.P. Marchand, N.T. Quang); Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan (R. Culleton, S. Nakazawa); Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan (Y. Maeno).
Figure 4. Frequency of single and co-infections among 124 human blood samples (A) and 73 mosquito salivary glands (B) positive for Plasmodium spp. infection by PCR. P. malariae was discarded. Gray bars indicate P. knowlesi infection or co-infection. F, P. falciparum; V, P. vivax; K, P. knowlesi.
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