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Volume 17, Number 7—July 2011

Research

Co-infections of Plasmodium knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax among Humans and Anopheles dirus Mosquitoes, Southern Vietnam

Ron P. MarchandComments to Author , Richard Culleton, Yoshimasa Maeno, Nguyen Tuyen Quang, and Shusuke Nakazawa
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Medical Committee Netherlands–Vietnam, Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam (R.P. Marchand, N.T. Quang); Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan (R. Culleton, S. Nakazawa); Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan (Y. Maeno).

Main Article

Table

Frequencies of malaria parasite species determined by microscopy and PCR in 2 samples of human blood from residents of Khanh Phu commune, Vietnam, 2009–2010*

Test categories
Active case detection†

Cross-sectional survey‡
Men
Women
Total
Men
Women
Total
No. tested 110 64 174 25 12 37
Patient mean age, y
25.7
25.1
25.5

20.7
20.0
20.4
By microscopy determination
Total no. parasite positive 47 (43) 22 (34) 69 (40) 25 (100) 12 (100) 37 (100)
No. Plasmodium falciparum positive 38 (35) 15 (23) 53 (30) 16 (64) 4 (33) 20 (54)
No. P. vivax positive
14 (13)
8 (13)
22 (13)

13 (52)
8 (67)
21 (57)
By PCR determination
Total no. parasite positive 60 (55) 28 (44) 88 (51) 25 (100) 12 (100) 37 (100)
No. P. falciparum positive 49 (45) 19 (30) 68 (39) 21 (84) 6 (50) 27 (73)
No. P. vivax positive 28 (25) 14 (22) 42 (24) 18 (72) 9 (75) 27 (73)
No. P. knowlesi positive 8 (7) 5 (8) 13 (7) 12 (48) 7 (58) 19 (51)
No. P. malariae positive 1 4 5 1 0 1
No. P. ovale positive
0
0
0

0
0
0
*Values are no. (%) except as indicated. All percentages are calculated over the total no. samples tested in each column.
†The active case detection sample consisted of 174 blood samples of 549, including 69 of 121 found positive by microscopy.
‡In the cross-sectional survey, blood was taken from 624 persons, 49 of which were found positive by microscopy. A random selection of 37 blood samples of these 49 positive samples was analyzed by PCR.

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