Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 17, Number 7—July 2011

Research

Co-infections of Plasmodium knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax among Humans and Anopheles dirus Mosquitoes, Southern Vietnam

Ron P. MarchandComments to Author , Richard Culleton, Yoshimasa Maeno, Nguyen Tuyen Quang, and Shusuke Nakazawa
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Medical Committee Netherlands–Vietnam, Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam (R.P. Marchand, N.T. Quang); Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan (R. Culleton, S. Nakazawa); Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan (Y. Maeno).

Main Article

Table A1

Results of the collection, dissections and PCR processing of Anopheles dirus mosquitoes caught by human landing catch in the forest of Khanh Phu, Vietnam, 2009–2010

An. dirus collections
Midgut
Ovaries
Salivary glands

PCR tested
Date, y, mo No. caught No. nights Biting density* No. dissected No. oocysts. No. parous No. not parous. No. dissected No. sporozoites. EIR† No. PCR No. P.k
2008
Jan 194 35 5.5 146 1 161 33 194 6 0.17 2
Feb 47 26 1.8 27 42 5 47 0.00
Mar 87 60 1.5 41 1 58 27 87 4 0.07
Apr 107 60 1.8 45 1 74 33 107 2 0.03 2
May 39 59 0.7 21 30 9 39 0.00
Jun 71 60 1.2 42 54 17 71 1 0.02 1
Jul 28 60 0.5 16 24 4 28 0.00
Aug 20 58 0.3 7 17 3 20 1 0.02 1
Sep 135 57 2.4 56 98 36 134 0.00
Oct 567 59 9.6 293 1 456 111 567 2 0.03
Nov 607 59 10.3 335 1 428 179 607 5 0.08 3
Dec 203 60 3.4 116 2 156 47 203 1 0.02 1 1
2009
Jan 88 32 2.8 39 79 9 88 1 0.03 1 1
Feb 387 40 9.7 198 2 307 78 385 5 0.13 4 2
Mar 499 50 10.0 282 1 380 119 499 6 0.12 6 3
Apr 193 50 3.9 106 2 149 44 193 4 0.08 4 2
May 81 47 1.7 35 70 11 81 4 0.09 4 3
Jun 85 50 1.7 37 63 22 85 3 0.06 3 1
Jul 65 49 1.3 45 2 56 8 64 3 0.06 3 2
Aug 178 49 3.6 89 142 36 178 1 0.02 1
Sep 220 50 4.4 131 158 50 208 0.00
Oct 364 50 7.3 209 1 272 93 365 2 0.04 2 1
Nov 278 50 5.6 175 184 100 284 1 0.02 1
Dec 380 50 7.6 215 4 290 81 371 2 0.04 2
2010
Jan 559 49 11.4 345 9 453 108 561 29 0.59 29 13
Feb
222
16
13.9
132
2
153
44
197
6
0.42
3
1
Totals over 26 mo 5,704 1,285 4.44 3,183 30 4,354 1,307 5,663 89 0.07 73 31
Averages: % oocysts % parous % sporozoites AnnualEIR¶ % P.k positive#
0.94 76.9 1.57 25.46 42

**Biting density = monthly average no. of bites by An. dirus/person-night; –, not found.
†EIR, entomologic inoculation rate expressed as the monthly average no. of sporozoite-infected bites/person-night.
‡P.k, no. of mosquito salivary glands that were positive for Plasmodium knowlesi.
§The analysis of the first mosquito found with P. knowlesi in August 2008 was described in Nakazawa et al. (11).
Annual EIR calculated from the average 0.07 infective bites/person-night over the whole period of 26 mo, then multiplied by 365.
#The percentage of P. knowlesi–positive salivary glands among the sporozoite-positive salivary glands that underwent PCR.

Main Article

TOP