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Volume 17, Number 8—August 2011

Dispatch

Risk Factors for Death from Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Southern Brazil

Renata T.C. YokotaComments to Author , Lacita M. Skalinski, Cristine N. Igansi, Libia R.O. de Souza, Betine P.M. Iser, Priscilleyne O. Reis, Eliana N.C. Barros, Eduardo M. Macário, Marilina A. Bercini, Tani M.S. Ranieri, and Wildo N. Araújo
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Ministry of Heath, Brasilia, Brazil (R.T.C. Yokota, L.M. Skalinski, C.N. Igansi, L.R.O. de Souza, B.P.M. Iser, P.O. Reis, E.N.C. Barros, E.M. Macário, W.N. Araújo); Health Secretariat of Rio do Sul State, Porto Alegre, Brazil (M.A. Bercini, T.M.S. Ranieri)

Main Article

Table 1

Characteristics of confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 patients, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 2009*

Characteristic Value No. patients
Demographic
Male sex 78 (50) 157
Age, y 33 (0–73) 157
Family income, US$ 678 (0–6,780) 146
Education level, y† 8 (0–19) 129
Residence city different from hospitalization city
46 (29)
157
Smoking habits†
Current smoker 34 (24) 142
Years exposed to tobacco 14 (1–47) 33
Cigarettes/day 12 (1–60) 33
Pack-years 8 (0–93) 33
Former smoker 19 (13) 142
Years exposed to tobacco 11 (1–54) 18
Cigarettes/day 20 (3–60) 18
Pack-years
6.5 (0–162)
18
Signs and symptoms
Cough 155 (99) 157
Fever 152 (97) 157
Shortness of breath 152 (97) 157
Myalgia 110 (70) 157
Chills 110 (70) 157
Arthralgia 73 (47) 157
Sore throat 74 (47) 157
Hemoptysis 18 (11) 157
Diarrhea 52 (33) 157
Vomiting 69 (44) 157
Conjunctivitis 9 (6) 157
Headache
56 (36)
157
Seasonal influenza vaccination in the previous year‡ 13 (13) 101
Pneumonia vaccination in the previous year‡ 5 (5) 101
Health care treatment before hospitalization
136 (87)
157
Risk factor for influenza complication§ 87 (55) 157
Diabetes 23 (18) 125
Chronic lung disease 23 (18) 125
Immunosuppression 11 (9) 125
Chronic cardiovascular disease 8 (6) 125
Chronic renal disease 6 (5) 125
Pregnancy trimester¶ 15 (25) 59
Second 5 (33) 15
Third 10 (67) 15
Age <5 y 16 (10) 157
Age >60 y
7 (5)
157
Obesity# 53 (38) 138
Class III obesity**
10 (7)
138
Hospitalization
Admitted to intensive care unit 80 (51) 157
Mechanical ventilation 61 (39) 157
Invasive procedures 69 (44) 157
Clinical complications 54 (34) 157

*Values are no. (%) or median (range).
†Children <8 years of age were excluded from the denominator.
‡Influenza and pneumonia vaccination were checked on the vaccination card.
§Obesity was not included.
¶Percentage of pregnancy among women of reproductive age (15–49 years) was included.
#Body mass index (BMI) data were available for 138 patients. Obesity in adults was BMI >30 kg/m2; in children and adolescents <19 years of age, obesity was BMI for age >+2 z scores. Pregnant women were excluded.
**Class III obesity was BMI >40 kg/m2. Patients <19 years of age and pregnant women were excluded.

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