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Volume 17, Number 8—August 2011

Research

Incidence of Acute Gastroenteritis and Role of Norovirus, Georgia, USA, 2004–2005

Aron J. HallComments to Author , Mariana Rosenthal, Nicole Gregoricus, Sharon A. Greene, Jeana Ferguson, Olga L. Henao, Jan Vinjé, Ben A. Lopman, Umesh D. Parashar, and Marc-Alain Widdowson
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (A.J. Hall, M. Rosenthal, N. Gregoricus, S.A. Greene, O.L. Henao, J. Vinjé, B.A. Lopman, U.D. Parashar, M.-A. Widdowson); University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA (M. Rosenthal); Kaiser Permanente, Atlanta (J. Ferguson)

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Table 3

Estimated incidence of pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis in community and outpatient settings, Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Georgia, Inc., USA, March 15, 2004–March 13, 2005*

Pathogen Outpatient†
Community‡
Incidence (90% CI)§ % Total Incidence (90% CI)§ % Total
Virus 1,300 (750–2,200) 24.1 11,000 (6,800–19,000) 26.8
Norovirus 640 (360–1,200) 11.9 6,500 (3,700–12,000) 15.9
Astrovirus 270 (130–590) 5.0 1,800 (880–3,400) 4.4
Rotavirus 150 (65–330) 2.8 880 (400–1,700) 2.1
Sapovirus 110 (49–220) 2.0 900 (420–1,800) 2.2
Adenovirus
120 (49–260)
2.2

970 (410–2,100)
2.4
Bacteria 240 (160–320) 4.4 1,700 (1,100–2,300) 4.1
Clostridium difficile 96 (61–150) 1.8 960 (590–1,500) 2.3
Salmonella spp. 69 (35–120) 1.3 250 (130–440) 0.6
Shigella spp. 41 (17–85) 0.8 200 (86–410) 0.5
Campylobacter spp.
31 (9–76)
0.6

240 (71–590)
0.6
Parasite 60 (29–110) 1.1 420 (200–790) 1.0
Giardia spp. 43 (18–86) 0.8 350 (150–720) 0.9
Cryptosporidium spp.
17 (4–48)
0.3

68 (14–190)
0.2
Any pathogen
1,600 (1,300–2,400)
29.6

13,000 (10,000–20,000)
31.7
Unidentified
3,800 (3,200–4,600)
70.4

28,000 (23,000–34,000)
68.3
Total 5,400 (4,400–6,700) 100 41,000 (38,000–44,000) 100

*Incidence is per 100,000 person-years. Acute gastroenteritis is defined as diarrhea (>3 loose stools in a 24-h period) beginning within the past month and in the absence of a chronic disease for which diarrhea is a major sign. CI, credible interval.
†Outpatient incidence calculated from prevalence in fecal specimens sampled, age-adjusted fecal specimen submission rates among health care seekers, number of fecal specimens submitted to the Kaiser laboratory annually (1,825), and number of Kaiser memberships in Georgia (280,000).
‡Community incidence calculated from prevalence in fecal specimens sampled, age-adjusted medical care seeking and fecal specimen submission rates, number of fecal specimens submitted to the Kaiser laboratory annually (1,825) and total Kaiser memberships in Georgia (280,000).
§90% CI calculated from the 5th and 95th percentiles of 100,000 simulations, assuming a β distribution of variables.

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