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Volume 17, Number 8—August 2011

Research

Spread of Measles Virus D4-Hamburg, Europe, 2008–2011

Annette MankertzComments to Author , Zefira Mihneva, Hermann Gold, Sigrid Baumgarte, Armin Baillot, Rudolph Helble, Hedwig Roggendorf, Golubinka Bosevska, Jasminka Nedeljkovic, Agata Makowka, Veronik Hutse, Heidemarie Holzmann, Stefan W. Aberle, Samuel Cordey, Gheorghe Necula, Andreas Mentis, Gulay Korukluoğlu, Michael Carr, Kevin E. Brown, Judith M. Hübschen, Claude P. Muller, Mick N. Mulders, and Sabine Santibanez
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany (A. Mankertz, S. Santibanez); National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia, Bulgaria (Z. Mihneva); Department of Health and Environment, München, Germany (H. Gold); Institute of Hygiene and the Environment, Hamburg, Germany (S. Baumgarte); Governmental Institute of Public Health of Lower Saxony, Hannover, Germany (A. Baillot); Health Office City of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany (R. Helble); Public Health Office, Essen, Germany (H. Roggendorf); Institute for Public Health, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (G. Bosevska); Institute of Virology, Belgrade, Serbia (J. Nedeljkovic); National Institute of Public Health, Warsaw, Poland (A. Makowka); Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium (V. Hutse); Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria (H. Holzmann, S.W. Aberle); University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland (S. Cordey); Cantacuzino National Institute of Research and Development for Microbiology and Immunology, Bucharest, Romania (G. Necula); Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens, Greece (A. Mentis); Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara, Turkey (G. Korukluoğlu); Virus Reference Laboratory, Dublin, Ireland (M. Carr); Health Protection Agency, London, UK (K.E. Brown); Laboratoire National de Santé/CRP-Santé, Luxembourg (J.M. Hübschen, C.P. Muller); World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark (M.N. Mulders)

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Figure 1

Phylogenetic relationships between measles viruses of genotype D4 recently detected in Europe. The measles virus variant D4-Hamburg initiated a long-lasting transmission chain spreading to several European countries during 2008–2011. D4-Hamburg belongs to the D4-Enfield lineage, which is genetically distinct from the previously widespread lineage D4-Bucharest. Phylogenetic analysis is based on a 456-nt sequence encoding the C-terminus of the measles virus nucleocapsid protein. The tree was const

Figure 1. Phylogenetic relationships between measles viruses of genotype D4 recently detected in Europe. The measles virus variant D4-Hamburg initiated a long-lasting transmission chain spreading to several European countries during 2008–2011. D4-Hamburg belongs to the D4-Enfield lineage, which is genetically distinct from the previously widespread lineage D4-Bucharest. Phylogenetic analysis is based on a 456-nt sequence encoding the C-terminus of the measles virus nucleocapsid protein. The tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining method by using MacVector version 11.1.2 software (www.macvector.com). Scale bar indicates number of 5-nt deviations per 1,000-nt sequence. GenBank accession numbers are MVi/Montreal.CAN/89 (World Health Organization reference strain; www.cdc.gov/measles/lab-tools/who-table.html), U01976; MVs/Bucharest.ROU/48.04/1, AM849091; MVs/Arad.ROU/38.07/2, HQ704309; MVs/Hamburg.DEU/03.09, HQ436108; MVs/Wildeshausen.DEU/21.09, HQ704360; MVs/Nuernberg.DEU/11.09, HQ436110; MVs/Lodz.POL/27.09, HQ441202; MVs/Belfast.GBR/50.09, GU479875; MVs/Vienna.AUT/13.10/1, HQ704298; MVs/Plovdiv.BGR/23.10/1, HQ436106; MVs/Pyrgos.GRC/19.10, HM802126; MVs/Istanbul.TUR/20.10, HM579947; MVs/Vienna.AUT/24.10, HQ704300; MVs/Kumanovo.MKD/35.10/1, not available (NA); MVs/Lausanne.CHE/02.11, pending; MVs/Plovdiv.BGR/23.10/6, HQ436107; MVs/Ghent.BEL/09.11/1, NA; MVs/Harburg.DEU/06.09, HQ436109; MVs/Wroclaw.POL/13.09, HQ441201; MVs/Silistra.BGR/21.09/1, HQ436104; MVs/Blagoevgrad.BGR/02.10, HQ704345; MVs/Graz.AUT/12.10, HQ441211; MVs/Mannheim.DEU/07.10, HQ704362; MVs/Kerry.IRL/40.09, NA; MVs/Timis.ROU/18.10/1, HQ704313; MVs/Muenchen.DEU/22.10, HQ704350; MVs/Essen.DEU/24.10, HQ704373; MVs/Skopje.MKD/44.10/1, NA; MVs/Karlsruhe.DEU/48.10, pending; MVs/MuenchenDEU/23.10/2, HQ704375; MVs/VelikoTarnovo.BGR/10.11/1, JF754464; MVs/Karlsruhe.DEU/03.09, HQ436113; MVs/London.GBR/5.09, GU120179; MVs/Shumen.BGR/15.09/1, HQ436103; MVs/Pulawy.POL/28.09, HQ441203; MVs/Plovdiv.BGR/03.10/1, HQ436105; MVs/AmaliaDa.GRC/12.10, HM802121; MVs/Eichstaett.DEU/18.10, HQ704346; MVs/Ludwigshafen.DEU/21.10, HQ704349; MVs/Vienna.AUT/23.10, HQ704299; MVs/Belgrad.SRB/24.10, NA; MVs/Neumuenster.DEU/47.10/1, JF754463; MVs/Leskovac.SRB/08.11/1, NA; MVs/Poitiers.FRA/07.09, FN663615; MVs/Manchester.GBR/10.09, GQ370461; MVs/Ravensburg.DEU/17.09, HQ436112; MVs/Offenburg.DEU/18.10, HQ704368; MVs/Ugento.ITA/15.10, HM173092; MVs/Esslingen.DEU/16.10, HQ704364; MVs/Raichur.IND/38.06, EU812270; MVi/Kolar.IND/03.07/1, EU812284; MVs/Enfield.GBR/14.07, EF600554; and MVs/Duesseldorf.DEU/05.09, HQ436111.

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