Human Parvovirus 4 as Potential Cause of Encephalitis in Children, India
Laura A. Benjamin, Penny Lewthwaite, Ravi Vasanthapuram, Guoyan Zhao, Colin Sharp, Peter Simmonds, David Wang, and Tom Solomon
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Liverpool Institute of Infection and Global Health, Liverpool, UK (L.A. Benjamin, P. Lewthwaite, T. Solomon); Walton Centre National Health Service Foundation Trust, Liverpool (L.A. Benjamin, T. Solomon); Vijayanagar Institute of Medical Sciences, Bellary, India (R. Vasanthapuram); Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA (G. Zhao, D. Wang); University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland (C. Sharp, P. Simmonds)
Figure. Phylogenetic analysis of (A) complete nonstructural (NS) and (B) viral protein (VP) 1/VP 2 gene sequences of human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) variants isolated from patients with encephalitis of unknown etiology using 167 available sequences from human PARV4 variants (genotypes 1–3). Blue, study sample; red, genotype 1; orange, genotype 2; yellow, genotype 3. The porcine hokovirus sequence (GenBank accession no. EU200671) was used as an outgroup (not shown). The trees were constructed by neighbor-joining of pairwise maximum-composite likelihood corrected distances between nucleotide sequences; bootstrap values ≈70% are shown. Scale bars represent an evolutionary distance of 0.05.
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