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Volume 17, Number 9—September 2011

Research

Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in Miscarriage

David Baud, Genevieve Goy, Katia Jaton, Maria-Chiara Osterheld, Serafin Blumer, Nicole Borel, Yvan Vial, Patrick Hohlfeld, Andreas Pospischil, and Gilbert GreubComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland (D. Baud, G. Goy, K. Jaton, M.-C. Osterheld, Y. Vial, P. Hohlfeld, G. Greub); University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland (S. Blumer, N. Borel, A. Pospischil)

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Table 1

Characteristics of 386 women, by miscarriage history, in a study of the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, November 2006–June 2009*

Characteristic Control group, no. (%), n = 261 Miscarriage group, no. (%), n = 125 p value
Age, y†
<35 194 (74.3) 71 (56.8) 0.001
>35
67 (25.7)
54 (43.2)

No. pregnancies‡
1 141 (54.0) 38 (30.4) <0.001
2 78 (29.9) 32 (25.6)
>2
42 (16.1)
55 (44.0)

Parity§
0 160 (61.3) 62 (49.6) 0.066
1 72 (27.6) 41 (32.8)
>1
29 (11.1)
22 (17.6)

Origin
European 217 (83.1) 69 (55.2) <0.001
Non-European
44 (16.9)
56 (44.8)

Marital status
Married 201 (77.0) 90 (72.0) 0.193
Single 49 (18.8) 24 (19.2)
Divorced
11 (4.2)
11 (8.8)

Education
Non–university studies 170 (65.1) 96 (76.8) 0.025
University studies
91 (34.9)
29 (23.2)

No. lifetime sex partners
1 58 (22.2) 37 (29.6) 0.031
2 or 3 43 (16.5) 24 (19.2)
4–6 45 (17.2) 10 (8.0)
>6 36 (13.8) 10 (8.0)
No answer
79 (30.3)
44 (35.2)

Previously used contraceptive method
Pill 101 (38.7) 36 (28.8) 0.093
Condoms 68 (26.1) 34 (27.2)
Other 19 7.3) 6 (4.8)
Never used contraception
73 (28.0)
49 (39.2)

Smoking status
Nonsmoker 224 (85.8) 106 (84.8) 0.877
Smoker
37 (14.2)
19 (15.2)

C. trachomatis serologic results
IgG+ 19 (7.3) 19 (15.2) 0.018
IgA+ 10 (3.8) 10 (8.0) 0.091
IgG+ and IgA+ 7 (2.7) 9 (7.2) 0.037
IgG+ or IgA+
22 (8.4)
20 (16.0)
0.025
C. trachomatis PCR
Cervicovaginal swab 2 (0.8) 5 (4.0) 0.026
Placenta 2 (0.8) 5 (4.0) 0.026
>1 PCR positive 2 (0.8) 6 (4.8) 0.009

*Ig, immunoglobulin.
†Age, y, mean + SD: controls, 31.5 + 5.0; women with miscarriage, 33.3 + 6.1; p = 0.002.
‡No. pregnancies, mean + SD: controls, 1.7 + 0.9; women with miscarriage, 2.6 + 0.5; p<0.001.
§Parity, mean + SD: controls, 0.5 + 0.8; women with miscarriage, 0.8 + 1.0; p = 0.008.

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