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Volume 18, Number 1—January 2012

Research

High Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Swaziland, 2009–2010

Elisabeth Sanchez-PadillaComments to Author , Themba Dlamini, Alexandra Ascorra, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Zerihun Demissie Tefera, Philippe Calain, Roberto de la Tour, Frauke Jochims, Elvira Richter, and Maryline Bonnet
Author affiliations: Epicentre, Paris, France (E. Sanchez-Padilla, A. Ascorra, M. Bonnet); National Tuberculosis Control Programme, Mbabane, Swaziland (T. Dlamini); National Reference Center for Mycobacteria, Borstel, Germany (S. Rüsch-Gerdes, E. Richter); Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland (Z.D. Tefera, P. Calain, R. de la Tour, F. Jochims)

Main Article

Table 4

Patient characteristics associated with risk for MDR TB, Swaziland, 2009–2010*

Variable No. positive/no. tested (%) Univariate analysis
Multivariate analysis
PR (95% CI) p value Adjusted PR (95% CI) p value
Sex
  M 46/309 (14.9) Ref Ref
  F 76/324 (23.5) 1.58 (1.13–2.19) 0.007 1.30 (0.92–1.82) 0.139
Age, y†
  >40 21/156 (13.5) Ref Ref
  32–40 41/182 (22.5) 1.67 (1.03–2.71) 0.036 1. 43 (0.90–2.28) 0.132
  27–31 27/136 (19.9) 1.47 (0.88–2.49) 0.145 1.34 (0.81–2.23) 0.253
  15–26 32/158 (20.3) 1.50 (0.91–2.49) 0.112 1.61 (0.98–2.65) 0.058
Region of residence
  Shiselweni 26/147 (17.7) Ref
  Manzini 30/169 (17.8) 1.00 (0.62–1.62) 0.988
  HhoHho 27/168 (16.1) 0.91 (0.56–1.48) 0.702
  Lubombo 39/148 (26.4) 1.49 (0.96–2.31) 0.076
Education
  None 20/139 (14.4) Ref
  Primary school 45/208 (21.6) 1.50 (0.93–2.43) 0.097
  Secondary school 31/166 (18.7) 1.30 (0.78–2.17) 0.321
  High school 17/89 (19.1) 1.33 (0.74–2.39) 0.346
  Tertiary 5/20 (25.0) 1.74 (0.73–4.11) 0.208
Employment (permanent job)
  No 83/351 (19.1) Ref
  Yes 183/37 (20.2) 1.06 (0.74–1.50) 0.753
HIV status
  Negative 12/114 (10.5) Ref Ref
  Positive 102/451 (22.6) 2.15 (1.23–3.77) 0.008 1.78 (1.02–3.10) 0.043
TB patient type
  New case-patient 27/352 (7.7) Ref Ref
  Previously treated case-patient 95/281 (33.8) 4.41 (2.96–6.56) <0.001 4.25 (2.78–6.50) <0.001

*MDR, multidrug-resistant; TB, tuberculosis; PR, prevalence ratio; Ref, referent.
†Age categorized into quartiles.

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