Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Chikungunya, Dengue, and Rift Valley Fever Viruses after Febrile Illness Outbreak, Madagascar
Norbert G. Schwarz1 , Mirko Girmann1, Njary Randriamampionona, Alexandra Bialonski, Deborah Maus, Anne Caroline Krefis, Christine Njarasoa, Jeanne Fleury Rajanalison, Herly Daniel Ramandrisoa, Maurice Lucien Randriarison, Jürgen May, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, and Raphael Rakotozandrindrainy
Author affiliations: Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany (N.G. Schwarz, M. Girmann, A.C. Krefis, J. May); World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus and Haemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research, Hamburg (A. Bialonski, D. Maus, J. Schmidt-Chanasit); Université d’Antananarivo, Antananarivo, Madagascar (N. Randriamampionona, R. Rakotozandrindrainy); Hôpital d’Ambositra, Ambositra, Madagascar (C. Jnarasoa); Medecin Inspecteur de Tsiroanomandidy, Tsiroanomandidy, Madagascar (J.F. Rajanalison); Medecin Inspecteur de Moramanga, Moramanga, Madagascar (H.D. Ramandrisoa); and Centre de Santé de Base Urban de Mananjary,Mananjary, Madagascar (M.L. Randriarison)
Figure 1. . . . . Madagascar (gray shading in inset), showing the main roads, the capital of Antananarivo (square), the harbor city of Toamasina (white circle), and the locations of the 6 study sites (black circles) from which serologic samples from pregnant women were screened for IgG against chikungunya virus, dengue virus, and Rift Valley fever virus. The altitudes of the locations are as follows: Mananjary and Manakar, coastal; Ifanadiana, 466 m; Moramanga, 920 m; Tsiroanomandidy, 860 m; Ambositra, 1,280 m; Toamasina, coastal; Irondro, 40 m; Antananarivo, 1,300 m.
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