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Volume 18, Number 11—November 2012

Research

Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Chikungunya, Dengue, and Rift Valley Fever Viruses after Febrile Illness Outbreak, Madagascar

Norbert G. Schwarz1Comments to Author , Mirko Girmann1, Njary Randriamampionona, Alexandra Bialonski, Deborah Maus, Anne Caroline Krefis, Christine Njarasoa, Jeanne Fleury Rajanalison, Herly Daniel Ramandrisoa, Maurice Lucien Randriarison, Jürgen May, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, and Raphael Rakotozandrindrainy
Author affiliations: Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany (N.G. Schwarz, M. Girmann, A.C. Krefis, J. May); World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus and Haemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research, Hamburg (A. Bialonski, D. Maus, J. Schmidt-Chanasit); Université d’Antananarivo, Antananarivo, Madagascar (N. Randriamampionona, R. Rakotozandrindrainy); Hôpital d’Ambositra, Ambositra, Madagascar (C. Jnarasoa); Medecin Inspecteur de Tsiroanomandidy, Tsiroanomandidy, Madagascar (J.F. Rajanalison); Medecin Inspecteur de Moramanga, Moramanga, Madagascar (H.D. Ramandrisoa); and Centre de Santé de Base Urban de Mananjary,Mananjary, Madagascar (M.L. Randriarison)

Main Article

Table 3

Protective or risk factors for CHIKV infection in pregnant women from 2 coastal locations Mananjary (N = 195) and Manakara (N = 251), Madagascar, May–July 2010*

Factor No. women Bivariable analysis, n = 446
Multivariable model 1, n = 433
Multivariable model 2, n = 376
OR (95% CI)† p value OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Bednet use

No

40 Reference 0.70 Reference 0.98 Reference 0.95

Yes

400 0.87 (0.44–1.73) 0.99 (0.47–2.06) 1.02 (0.47–2.22)
Parity

Multipara

324 Reference 0.93 Reference 0.44 Reference 0.65

Primipara

122 0.98 (0.63–1.53) 0.79 (0.43–1.44) 0.86 (0.44–1.67)
Age, y

<20

94 Reference 0.67† Reference 0.17 Reference 0.37

20–30

225 0.82 (0.49–1.36) 0.70 (0.36–1.34) 0.81 (0.39–1.69)

>30

125 0.87 (0.49–1.53) 0.57 (0.26–1.23) 0.68 (0.29–1.60)
Weight, kg

<40

17 Reference 0.001† Reference 0.0006 Reference 0.001

40–49

242 1.22 (0.38–3.87) 1.22 (0.38–3.92) 1.45 (0.39–5.45)

50–59

142 1.82 (0.56–5.88) 1.86 (0.57–6.08) 2.36 (0.61–9.09)

60–70

32 2.53 (0.67–9.47) 2.84 0.74–10.8 3.82 (0.85–17.2)

>70

8 9.75 (1.38–68.8) 10.8 (1.52–77.2) 11.4 (1.39–93.0)
Trimester

1st

9 Reference 0.45 Reference 0.39‡

2nd

142 0.37 (0.10–1.45) 0.44 (0.10–1.90)

3rd

236 0.36 (0.10–1.40) 0.40 (0.10–1.71)

*CHIKV, chikungunya virus; OR, odds ratio.
†Nonparametric test of trend.
‡Mantel-Haenszel test for trend, adjusted for the other variables.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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