Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 18, Number 11—November 2012

Research

Litchi–associated Acute Encephalitis in Children, Northern Vietnam, 2004–2009

Juliette Paireau, Nguyen Hai Tuan, Rémi Lefrançois, Matthew R. Buckwalter, Ngu Duy Nghia, Nguyen Tran Hien, Olivier Lortholary, Sylvain Poirée, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Antoine Gessain, Matthew L. Albert, Paul T. Brey, Phan Thi Nga, and Arnaud FontanetComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (J. Paireau, R. Lefrançois, M.R. Buckwalter, J.-C. Manuguerra, A. Gessain, M.L. Albert, A. Fontanet); National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam (N.H. Tuan, N.D. Nghia, P.T. Nga, N.T. Hien); Université Paris X-Nanterre, Paris (R. Lefrançois); INSERM U818, Paris (M.R. Buckwalter, M.L. Albert); Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (O. Lortholary, S. Poirée); Université Paris Descartes, Paris (O. Lortholary, M.L. Albert); CNRS URA 1930, Paris (A. Gessain); Institut Pasteur, Vientiane, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (P.T. Brey); and Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris (A. Fontanet)

Main Article

Table 2

Clinical and laboratory features of Ac Mong encephalitis patients, Bac Giang Province, Vietnam, 2004–2009*

Feature No. (%) Median (IQR)
Sex, n = 88

F

41 (47) NA

M


47 (53)
NA
Age, y, n = 88

<2

16 (18) NA

2–4

27 (31) NA

4–6

19 (22) NA

6–15


26 (30)
NA
Symptoms/signs before and at admission

Headache, n = 62

36 (58) NA

Fever,† n = 85

76 (89) NA

Temperature at admission, °C, n = 87

NA 38.2 (38.0–39.0)

Seizures, n = 87

71 (82) NA

Altered mental status, n = 75

65 (87) NA

Coma, n = 70

7 (10) NA

Meningeal symptoms,‡ n = 67

57 (85) NA

Limb paralysis, n = 75

4 (5) NA

Cranial nerve palsy, n = 60

2 (3) NA

Vomiting, n = 58

37 (64) NA

Diarrhea, n = 52


4 (8)
NA
Days between onset and admission, n = 88
NA
1 (0–2)
Blood analysis NA NA

Leukocytes, × 109 cells/L, n = 85

NA 17.5 (10.7–22.0)

Lymphocytes, %, n = 72

NA 19 (13–29)

Platelets, × 109/L, n = 68

NA 254.5 (207.5–309.5)

Hemoglobin, g/L, n = 70

NA 114 (100–130)

Glucose, mmol/L, n = 72


NA
5.0 (3.2–6.1)
CSF sample

Leukocytes, × 109 cells/L, n = 16

NA 20 (12.5–85)

Lymphocytes, %, n = 18

NA 57 (40–75)

Protein level >0.5 g/L, n = 66

9 (14) NA

Transparent appearance of CSF, n = 75

73 (97) NA

Increased CSF pressure, i.e., >20 cm H20, n = 70


35 (50)
NA
Cranial CT scan, n = 50

Normal

29 (58) NA

Diffuse edema

14 (28) NA

Evidence of brain herniation

4 (8) NA

Hemorrhagic stigma

3 (6) NA

Intraparenchymal hypodensity

4 (8) NA

Cortico-subcortical atrophy


8 (16)
NA
Liver enzymes, n = 17

ALT, U/L

NA 42 (37–58)

AST, U/L

NA 58 (43–76)

*IQR, interquartile range; NA, not applicable; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; CT, computed tomographic; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase.
†Observed by parents before admission or measured at admission (>38°C).
‡Either meningitis signs, stiff neck, Kernig’s sign, meningitis rash.

Main Article

TOP