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Volume 18, Number 11—November 2012

Research

Livestock Density as Risk Factor for Livestock-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the Netherlands

Beth J. FeingoldComments to Author , Ellen K. Silbergeld, Frank C. Curriero, Brigite A.G.L. van Cleef, Max E.O.C. Heck, and Jan A.J.W. Kluytmans
Author affiliations: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (B.J. Feingold, E.K. Silbergeld, F.C. Curriero); National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (B.A.G.L. van Cleef, M.E.O.C. Heck); and Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Netherlands; and VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (B.A.G.L. van Cleef, J.A.J.W. Kluytmans)

Main Article

Table 1

Characteristics of population in study of LA-MRSA carriage, the Netherlands, 2003–2005*

Characteristic MRSA status, no. (%) persons
Total no. (%) persons p value†
LA-MRSA T-MRSA
Total, N = 87
27
60
87

Probable source

Health care setting

3 (11.11) 30 (50.00) 33 (37.93)

Foreign

2 (7.41) 3 (5.00) 5 (5.75)

Unknown

13 (48.15) 20 (33.33) 33 (37.93)

Other


9 (33.33)
7 (11.67)
16 (18.39)
0.001
Contact with livestock and farms

With pigs

10 (37.04) 3 (5.00) 13 (14.94) 0.000

With cows


7 (25.93)
1 (1.67)
8 (9.20)
0.001
Residential location

Rural


12 (44.44)
4 (6.67)
16 (18.39)
0.000
Livestock density in municipality, animals/ hectare/ municipality

Pigs

Quartile 1, 0.000–0.004

0 16 (26.67) 16 (18.39)

Quartile 2, 0.005–0.651

5 (18.52) 15 (25.00) 20 (22.99)

Quartile 3, 0.652–3.268

6 (22.22) 12 (20.00) 18 (20.69)

Quartile 4, 3.269–45.477

16 (59.26) 17 (28.33) 33 (37.93) 0.003

Cows

Quartile 1, 0.00–0.340

3 (11.11) 30 (50.00) 33 (37.93)

Quartile 2, 0.341–0.848

8 (19.63) 8 (13.33) 16 (18.39)

Quartile 3, 0.849–1.496

3 (11.11) 14 (23.33) 17 (19.54)

Quartile 4, 1.497–5.920

13 (48.15) 8 (13.33) 21 (24.14) 0.000

Veal calves

Quartile 1, 0.000–0.000

0 20 (33.33) 20 (22.99)

Quartile 2, 0.001–0.013

4 (14.81) 13 (21.67) 17 (19.54)

Quartile 3, 0.014–0.178

10 (37.04) 13 (21.67) 23 (26.44)

Quartile 4, 0.179–4.818


13 (48.15)
14 (23.33)
27 (31.03)
0.000
Population density

Quartile 1, 0.250–2.027

11 (40.74) 6 (10.00) 17 (19.54)

Quartile 2, 2.028–3.649

11 (40.74) 11 (18.33) 22 (25.29)

Quartile 3, 3.650–9.175

2 (7.41) 18 (30.00) 20 (22.99)

Quartile 4, 9.176–57.11

3 (11.11) 25 (41.67) 28 (32.18) 0.000

*MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; LA-MRSA, livestock associated MRSA; T-MRSA, typeable MRSA.
†Fisher exact test for differences in MRSA status by covariate categories.

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