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Volume 18, Number 12—December 2012

Research

Transmission Routes for Nipah Virus from Malaysia and Bangladesh

Bronwyn A. Clayton, Deborah Middleton, Jemma Bergfeld, Jessica Haining, Rachel Arkinstall, Linfa Wang, and Glenn A. MarshComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Livestock Industries, Geelong, Victoria, Australia (B.A. Clayton, D. Middleton, J. Bergfeld, J. Haining, R. Arkinstall, L. Wang, G.A. Marsh); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (B.A. Clayton); Duke–National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore (L. Wang)

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Table 1

Clinical disease in ferrets after experimental infection with NiV from Bangladesh or Malaysia*

NiV type and ferret no. Euthanasia, dpi Resp† Neuro Hemorr‡ Criteria for euthanasia Clinical signs
Bangladesh






B1

7 Obtundation Severely obtunded; hunched posture

B2

7 + +/− Respiratory +/− mild neurologic signs Hunched posture; possible mild neurologic disease (agitation); sneezing; >10% reduction in body weight§

B3

7 + +/− Respiratory +/− neurologic signs Possible mild neurologic disease (continuous licking, smacking lips); dehydration;¶ vomiting; rapid deterioration in clinical condition after sampling at 7 dpi

B4

7 + + Respiratory signs, neurologic signs, and obtundation Fine tremors/myoclonus of forelimbs; nasal discharge

B5

8 + Neurologic signs and obtundation Hind limb myoclonus/paresis, ataxia; dehydration; periorbital/facial/ventral neck edema

B6

9 + + + Respiratory signs, neurologic signs, hemorrhage, and obtundation Forelimb myoclonus; sneezing; mucoid nasal discharge; reduced feces production; periorbital/facial edema; hemorrhage of oral mucosa at euthanasia time point; >10% reduction in body weight

B7

8 + Neurologic signs Myoclonus and muscular spasm affecting the tail, ataxia; ventral neck edema

B8


8
+
+

Respiratory signs, neurologic signs, and obtundation
Myoclonus of the flanks, ataxia, hind limb paralysis; vomiting; ventral neck edema
Malaysia

M9

7 + + + Respiratory signs, neurologic signs, hemorrhage, and obtundation Severe ataxia, facial and hind limb tremors, head tilt and torticollis (left); sneezing; nasal discharge; facial edema; hemorrhage of rectal mucosa at euthanasia

M10

7 + + + Respiratory signs, neurologic signs, hemorrhage, and obtundation Dyspnea with prolonged expiration phase; mild ataxia; reduced feces production; facial and ventral neck edema; hemorrhage from nose and mouth at euthanasia

M11

5 NA NA NA NA Euthanasia at 5 dpi for humane reasons; no evidence of clinical disease associated with NiV infection

M12

8 + + Neurologic signs and severe hemorrhage Spastic paralysis of right forelimb, rhythmic myoclonus of right trunk, ataxia; sneezing; nasal discharge; facial edema; extensive cutaneous petechial hemorrhages and facial bruising

M13

9 + +/− + Respiratory signs, hemorrhage, and obtundation Mild neurologic disease (hind limb paresis) at 6 dpi but not apparent at euthanasia; nasal discharge; facial edema; inappetence; >10% reduction in body weight

M14

8 + + Neurologic signs, hemorrhage, and obtundation Hunched posture; spastic paralysis of hind limbs, fine muscular fasciculations over flanks, ataxia; hunched posture; dehydration; nasal discharge; cutaneous petechial hemorrhages; >10% reduction in body weight

M15

10 + + Neurologic signs, hemorrhage, and obtundation Sporadic hind limb myoclonus; recumbency; nasal discharge; cutaneous petechial hemorrhages and hemorrhage from mouth; >10% reduction in body weight

*NiV, Nipah virus; dpi, days postinfection; resp, respiratory involvement; neuro, neurologic involvement; hemorr, hemorrhage; +/–, vague clinical signs that might indicate neurologic involvement; NA, not applicable.
†Increased respiratory effort and/or rate unless otherwise stated under clinical disease.
‡Cutaneous hemorrhages or frank hemorrhage from oral, nasal, and rectal mucosa.
§Based on weight data collected before experimental infection.
¶Based on the observation of reduced skin turgor at physical examination.

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