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Volume 18, Number 12—December 2012


Transmission Routes for Nipah Virus from Malaysia and Bangladesh

Bronwyn A. Clayton, Deborah Middleton, Jemma Bergfeld, Jessica Haining, Rachel Arkinstall, Linfa Wang, and Glenn A. MarshComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Livestock Industries, Geelong, Victoria, Australia (B.A. Clayton, D. Middleton, J. Bergfeld, J. Haining, R. Arkinstall, L. Wang, G.A. Marsh); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (B.A. Clayton); Duke–National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore (L. Wang)

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Table 1

Clinical disease in ferrets after experimental infection with NiV from Bangladesh or Malaysia*

NiV type and ferret no. Euthanasia, dpi Resp† Neuro Hemorr‡ Criteria for euthanasia Clinical signs


7 Obtundation Severely obtunded; hunched posture


7 + +/− Respiratory +/− mild neurologic signs Hunched posture; possible mild neurologic disease (agitation); sneezing; >10% reduction in body weight§


7 + +/− Respiratory +/− neurologic signs Possible mild neurologic disease (continuous licking, smacking lips); dehydration;¶ vomiting; rapid deterioration in clinical condition after sampling at 7 dpi


7 + + Respiratory signs, neurologic signs, and obtundation Fine tremors/myoclonus of forelimbs; nasal discharge


8 + Neurologic signs and obtundation Hind limb myoclonus/paresis, ataxia; dehydration; periorbital/facial/ventral neck edema


9 + + + Respiratory signs, neurologic signs, hemorrhage, and obtundation Forelimb myoclonus; sneezing; mucoid nasal discharge; reduced feces production; periorbital/facial edema; hemorrhage of oral mucosa at euthanasia time point; >10% reduction in body weight


8 + Neurologic signs Myoclonus and muscular spasm affecting the tail, ataxia; ventral neck edema



Respiratory signs, neurologic signs, and obtundation
Myoclonus of the flanks, ataxia, hind limb paralysis; vomiting; ventral neck edema


7 + + + Respiratory signs, neurologic signs, hemorrhage, and obtundation Severe ataxia, facial and hind limb tremors, head tilt and torticollis (left); sneezing; nasal discharge; facial edema; hemorrhage of rectal mucosa at euthanasia


7 + + + Respiratory signs, neurologic signs, hemorrhage, and obtundation Dyspnea with prolonged expiration phase; mild ataxia; reduced feces production; facial and ventral neck edema; hemorrhage from nose and mouth at euthanasia


5 NA NA NA NA Euthanasia at 5 dpi for humane reasons; no evidence of clinical disease associated with NiV infection


8 + + Neurologic signs and severe hemorrhage Spastic paralysis of right forelimb, rhythmic myoclonus of right trunk, ataxia; sneezing; nasal discharge; facial edema; extensive cutaneous petechial hemorrhages and facial bruising


9 + +/− + Respiratory signs, hemorrhage, and obtundation Mild neurologic disease (hind limb paresis) at 6 dpi but not apparent at euthanasia; nasal discharge; facial edema; inappetence; >10% reduction in body weight


8 + + Neurologic signs, hemorrhage, and obtundation Hunched posture; spastic paralysis of hind limbs, fine muscular fasciculations over flanks, ataxia; hunched posture; dehydration; nasal discharge; cutaneous petechial hemorrhages; >10% reduction in body weight


10 + + Neurologic signs, hemorrhage, and obtundation Sporadic hind limb myoclonus; recumbency; nasal discharge; cutaneous petechial hemorrhages and hemorrhage from mouth; >10% reduction in body weight

*NiV, Nipah virus; dpi, days postinfection; resp, respiratory involvement; neuro, neurologic involvement; hemorr, hemorrhage; +/–, vague clinical signs that might indicate neurologic involvement; NA, not applicable.
†Increased respiratory effort and/or rate unless otherwise stated under clinical disease.
‡Cutaneous hemorrhages or frank hemorrhage from oral, nasal, and rectal mucosa.
§Based on weight data collected before experimental infection.
¶Based on the observation of reduced skin turgor at physical examination.

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