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Volume 18, Number 2—February 2012

Research

Association of Human Bocavirus 1 Infection with Respiratory Disease in Childhood Follow-up Study, Finland

Mira Meriluoto, Lea Hedman, Laura Tanner, Ville Simell, Marjaana Mäkinen, Satu Simell, Juha Mykkänen, Jan Korpelainen, Olli Ruuskanen, Jorma Ilonen, Mikael Knip, Olli Simell, Klaus Hedman, and Maria Söderlund-VenermoComments to Author 
Author affiliations: University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (M. Meriluoto, L. Hedman, M. Knip, K. Hedman, M. Söderlund-Venermo); Haartman Institute, Helsinki (M. Meriluoto, L. Hedman, K. Hedman, M. Söderlund-Venermo); Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (L. Hedman, M. Knip, K. Hedman); University of Turku, Turku, Finland (L. Tanner, V. Simell, M. Mäkinen, S. Simell, J. Mykkänen, J. Korpelainen, O. Ruuskanen, J. Ilonen, O. Simell); University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland (J. Ilonen); Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland (M. Knip); Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki (M. Knip)

Main Article

Table 4

Infection-related signs and symptoms during human bocavirus 1 primary seroconversions and secondary responses compared with the previous and subsequent sampling interval, Finland*

Sign or symptom Primary immune response, n = 101
Secondary immune response, n = 43
Interval,† no. (%) Previous interval‡
Next interval§
Interval,¶ no. (%) Previous interval#
Next interval**
No. (%) p value No. (%) p value No. (%) p value No. (%) p value
URTI 61 (60.4) 34 (33.7) 0.0002 36 (35.6) 0.0002 24 (55.8) 21 (48.8) 0.53 23 (53.5) 1
LRTI 5 (4.9) 2 (2.0) 0.45 0 1 (2.3) 3 (7.0) 0.62 2 (4.6) 1
URTI or LRTI 62 (61.4) 36 (35.6) 0.0003 36 (35.6) <0.0001 24 (55.8) 22 (51.2) 0.83 23 (53.5) 1
Fever without RTI 14 (13.9) 9 (8.9) 0.30 10 (9.9) 0.54 7 (16.3) 3 (7.0) 0.22 3 (7.0) 0.34
Acute otitis media 47 (46.5) 33 (32.7) 0.024 31 (30.7) 0.026 12 (27.9) 8 (18.6) 0.45 5 (11.6) 0.06
Acute tonsillitis 0 1 (1.0) 1 (1.0) 1 (2.3) 1 (2.3) 1 0
Acute conjunctivitis 5 (4.9) 3 (3.0) 0.72 8 (7.9) 0.51 1 (2.3) 5 (11.6) 0.12 2 (4.6) 1
Acute sinusitis 2 (2.0) 0 1 (1.0) 1 2 (4.6) 3 (7.0) 1 2 (4.6)
Gastroenteritis 23 (22.8) 19 (18.8) 0.62 16 (15.8) 0.30 9 (20.9) 8 (18.6) 1 10 (23.3) 1
Exanthema, fever 8 (7.9) 4 (4.0) 0.34 0 0 1 (2.3) 0
Other 8 (7.9) 3 (3.0) 0.23 6 (5.9) 0.79 4 (9.3) 2 (4.6) 0.62 3 (7.0) 1
Totals 91 (90.1) 74 (73.3) 0.003 71 (70.3) 0.0003 35 (81.4) 30 (69.8) 0.27 32 (74.4) 0.58

*URTI, upper respiratory tract illness; LRTI, lower respiratory tract illness; RTI, respiratory tract infection; –, could not be calculated. Boldface indicates statistical significance by Liddell exact test (<0.05).
†Length of intervals, d: mean 155, median 166, range 75–361; mean age 2.3 y, median age 2.1 y.
‡Length of intervals, d: mean 139, median 130, range 73–358.
§Length of intervals, d: mean 155, median 169, range 61–615.
¶Length of intervals, d: mean 188, median 176, range 78–537, mean age 4.8 y, median 4.8 y.
#Length of intervals, d: mean 181, median 182, range 61–415.
**Length of intervals, d: mean 183, median 176, range 88–408. One child was omitted because of lack of clinical information for 1 interval.

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