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Volume 18, Number 4—April 2012

CME ACTIVITY - Research

Influenza-associated Hospitalizations by Industry, 2009–10 Influenza Season, United States

Sara E. LuckhauptComments to Author , Marie Haring Sweeney, Renee Funk, Geoffrey M. Calvert, Mackenzie Nowell1, Tiffany D’Mello, Arthur Reingold, James Meek, Kimberly Yousey-Hindes, Kathryn E. Arnold, Patricia Ryan, Ruth Lynfield, Craig Morin, Joan Baumbach, Shelley Zansky, Nancy M. Bennett, Ann Thomas, William Schaffner, and Timothy Jones
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA (S.E. Luckhaupt, M. H. Sweeney, G.M. Calvert); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (R. Funk, M. Nowell, T. D’Mello); University of California, Berkeley, California, USA (A. Reingold); Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA (J. Meek, K. Yousey-Hindes); Georgia Division of Public Health, Atlanta (K. E. Arnold); Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (P. Ryan),; Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA (R. Lynfield, C. Morin); New Mexico Department of Health, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (J. Baumbach); New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, USA (S. Zansky); University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA (N. M. Bennett); Oregon Public Health Division, Portland, Oregon, USA (A. Thomas); Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA (W. Schaffner); Tennessee Department of Health, Nashville (T. Jones)

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Table 2

Hospitalized influenza case-patients by industry sector per EIP (September 1, 2009–April 24, 2010), ratios compared with distribution of employed US adults per NHIS, and characteristics of employed US adults by industry sector per NHIS*

Industry sector of employment (NAICS code) % Employed hospitalized influenza case-patients, EIP Weighted % employed adults, NHIS† Ratio (95% CI)‡ % Case-patients with underlying condition, EIP§ % Adults, NHIS†
With underlying condition¶ Who smoke Annual earnings <$35,00 With usual place for health care
Transportation and warehousing (48, 49) 6.26 4.10 1.53 (1.18–1.94) 76.12 54.07 20.79 48.23 78.36
Administrative and support and waste management and remediation (56) 6.64 4.38 1.51 (1.18–1.91) 73.24 49.82 25.34 80.74 67.69
Health care (62, except for 624) 16.17 11.01 1.47 (1.26–1.70) 81.40 52.46 16.24 59.12 87.72
Accommodation and food (72) 9.07 6.70 1.35 (1.10–1.65) 73.20 39.32 30.88 92.27 63.92
Other (81) 6.26 5.15 1.22 (0.94–1.54) 75.00 44.88 17.37 78.74 77.23
Social assistance (624) 3.18 2.70 1.18 (0.82–1.64) 82.35 60.66 14.32 81.83 89.66
Information ( 51) 2.90 2.54 1.14 (0.78–1.62) 87.10 51.19 15.54 44.20 84.80
Retail trade (44, 45) 12.43 11.03 1.13 (0.94–1.34) 85.61 46.35 22.64 80.93 75.84
Finance and insurance (52) 4.95 4.41 1.12 (0.84–1.47) 69.81 48.59 14.60 41.36 87.91
Education (61) 9.63 10.25 0.94 (0.77–1.14) 89.32 50.00 8.40 53.79 91.72
Professional, scientific, and technical (54) 6.26 6.84 0.92 (0.71–1.16) 71.64 41.06 13.35 28.65 85.08
Arts, entertainment, and recreation (71) 1.78 2.04 0.87 (0.52–1.36) 78.95 39.32 21.40 75.67 80.40
Construction (23) 5.05 6.61 0.76 (0.57–1.00) 57.41 46.50 29.09 63.51 70.01
Real estate and rental and leasing (53) 1.21 1.92 0.63 (0.34–1.08) 76.92 45.90 23.33 63.24 78.29
Public administration (92) 3.18 5.44 0.58 (0.40–0.82) 82.35 57.93 14.64 34.99 92.16
Manufacturing (31–33) 4.30 9.56 0.45
(0.33–0.60) 71.74 52.02 21.75 49.79 81.93
Utilities (22) 1.00 53.67 18.20 24.09 88.59
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting (11) 1.18 44.75 19.36 82.97 71.40
Wholesale trade (42) 2.58 49.76 23.71 48.68 82.70
Mining (21) 0.50 44.93 27.03 35.78 78.99
All employed 38.10 59.50 0.64 (0.59–0.70) 77.05 48.53 19.17 60.39 81.09
All nonemployed 61.90 40.50 1.53 (1.42–1.65) 87.56 65.20 19.62 96.77 84.52

*EIP, Emerging Infections Program; NHIS, National Health Interview Survey; NAICS, North American Industry Classification System; –, <5 cases.
†Weighted estimates based on 2010 NHIS public use dataset (www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/quest_data_related_1997_forward.htm).
‡Proportion among EIP cases:proportion of employed adults, per NHIS.
§Include asthma, cystic fibrosis, other chronic lung disease, chronic cardiovascular disease, renal disease, chronic metabolic disease (including diabetes), hemoglobinopathy, neuromuscular disorder, cancer (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in past 12 mo, immunosuppressive condition, seizure disorder, Guillain-Barré syndrome, lymphoma or leukemia, cognitive dysfunction, pregnancy, and obesity.
¶Include asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, cardiovascular disease (hypertension, coronary heart disease, angina, myocardial infarction, other heart condition, or stroke), renal failure, diabetes, cancer (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in past 12 mo, epilepsy, pregnancy, and obesity (body mass index >30).

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1Current affiliation: Florida Department of Health, Orlando, Florida, USA.

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