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Volume 18, Number 4—April 2012

Research

Comparison of Escherichia coli ST131 Pulsotypes, by Epidemiologic Traits, 1967–2009

James R. JohnsonComments to Author , Marie-Hélène Nicolas-Chanoine, Chitrita DebRoy, Mariana Castanheira, Ari Robicsek, Glen Hansen, Scott Weissman, Carl Urban, Joanne Platell, Darren Trott, George Zhanel, Connie Clabots, Brian D. Johnston, Michael A. Kuskowski, and the MASTER Investigators
Author affiliations: Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA (J.R. Johnson, C. Clabots, B.D. Johnston, M.A. Kuskowski); University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (J.R. Johnson, B.D. Johnston, M.A. Kuskowski); Hôpital Beaujon, Clichy, France (M.-H. Nicolas-Chanoine); The Pennsylvania State University, College Park, Pennsylvania, USA (C. DebRoy); JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA (M. Castanheira); NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois, USA (A. Robicsek); Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis (G. Hansen); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA (S. Weissman); New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York, USA (C. Urban); New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA (C. Urban); University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (J. Platell); University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia (D. Trott); University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (G. Zhanel)

Main Article

Table 1

Association of year of isolation/submission with pulsotype and other characteristics for 579 Escherichia coli sequence type isolates, 1967–2009*

Associated characteristic, specific trait†‡ Characteristic absent
Characteristic present
p value†
No. isolates Year, median (range) No. isolates Year, median (range)
Pulsotype
High-prevalence 252 2007 (1967–2009) 327 2007 (1987–2009) <0.001
Multiple-isolate 105 2007 (1967–2009) 474 2007 (1982–2009) <0.001
968 443 2007 (1967–2009) 136 2008 (1992–2009) <0.001
812 547 2007 (1967–2009) 32 2007 (2005–2009) 0.03
987 568 2007 (1967–2009) 11 2008 (1998–2008) 0.004
955 572 2007 (1967–2009) 7 2002 (1993–2005) 0.001
1160 573 2007 (1967–2009) 6 2008 (2004–2009) 0.04
Resistance
FQ 117 2003 (1967–2009) 462 2007 (2000–2009) <0.001
ESBL 307 2007 (1967–2009) 272 2007 (2000–2009) 0.001
blaCTX-M-15 391 2007 (1967–2009) 188 2007 (2000–2009) 0.048
Source§
Human 92 2003 (1982–2009) 486 2007 (1985–2009) <0.001
Pet 556 2007 (1982–2009) 22 2008 (2002–2009) <0.001
Food animal 533 2007 (1985–2009) 45 1997 (1982–2009) <0.001
Food/water 563 2007 (1982–2009) 15 2003 (1993–2007) <0.001
Region
United States 133 2005 (1998–2009) 446 2007 (1967–2009) 0.007
West 520 2007 (1967–2009) 59 2007 (1982–2007) <0.001
Midwest 399 2007 (1967–2009) 180 2008 (1986–2009) <0.001
Canada 526 2007 (1967–2009) 53 2004 (1998–2004) <0.001
International 499 2007 (1967–2009) 80 2008 (2002–2009) <0.001

*ST, sequence type; FQ, fluoroquinolone; ESBL, extended-spectrum β-lactamase; blaCTX-M-15, gene encoding the CTX-M-15 ESBL; high-prevalence, pulsotypes with >6 isolates each; multiple-isolate, pulsotypes with >2 isolates each; international, non-US locales other than Canada.
†Characteristics shown are those that yielded p<0.05 (Mann-Whitney U test, 2-tailed).
‡High-prevalence pulsotypes 800, 905, 1202, 807, 919, 595, and 797; other animal source; and origin from the US South or US Northeast did not exhibit a significant association with year.
§Total for all source variables is 578 rather than 579 because source was unknown for 1 isolate.

Main Article

1MASTER (Macrorestriction Analysis of ST131 for Epidemiologic Research) Investigators who contributed data are listed at the end of this article.

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