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Volume 18, Number 5—May 2012

Research

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Escherichia coli from Humans and Food Animals, United States, 1950–2002

Daniel A. Tadesse, Shaohua Zhao, Emily Tong, Sherry Ayers, Aparna Singh, Mary J. Bartholomew, and Patrick F. McDermottComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Maryland, USA (D.A. Tadesse, S. Zhao, E. Tong, S. Ayers, A. Singh, P.F. McDermott); Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland, USA (M.J. Bartholomew)

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Table 2

Antimicrobial drug resistance phenotypes of Escherichia coli isolates from different sources, United States, 1950–2002*

Drug class Drug Resistance breakpoint, µg/mL % Resistance
Timeline for clinical use of drugs (reference)
Overall, n = 1,729 Human, n = 983 Cattle, n = 323 Chickens, n = 138 Pigs, n = 285
Penicillins AMP >32 24.1 16.5 35 34.1 33.3 1961 (17)
β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations AUG >32 5.6 2.4 12.7 7.3 7.4 1984 (17)
Cephems CEP >32 12.9 8.8 20.1 12.3 19.3 1964 (18)
FOX >32 4.4 1.5 9.3 5.1 8.4 1977 (19)
TIO >8 2.3 0.1 7.4 1.5 4.2 1988 (FDA Green Book)†
AXO >4 2.4 0.1 7.7 1.5 4.6 1984 (FDA Orange Book)‡
Phenicols CHL >32 8.1 3.7 18 8.7 11.9 1947 (17)
Aminoglycosides GEN >16 6.7 0.1 16.1 16.7 14 1963 (17)
KAN >64 19.3 5.7 39.9 29.7 37.5 1957 (17)
STR§ >64 34.2 15.3 61.3 58 57.2 1943 (17)
Quinolones CIP >4 0.4 0 1.9 0.7 0 1987 (17)
NAL >32 1.7 1 3.7 1.5 1.8 1962 (19)
Tetracyclines TET >16 40.9 18 71.2 68.8 72.3 1948 (17)
Folate pathway inhibitors SUL >512 36.2 19.9 61 60.9 52.6 1936 (19)
TMP/SMX >4 7 2.2 16.1 13.8 9.8 1968 (19)

*AMP, ampicillin; AUG, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid; CEP, cephalothin; FOX, cefoxitin; TIO, ceftiofur; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; AXO, ceftriaxone; CHL, chloramphenicol; GEN, gentamicin; KAN, kanamycin; STR, streptomycin; CIP, ciprofloxacin; NAL, nalidixic acid; TET, tetracycline; SUL, sulfonamide; TMP/SMX, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/Products/ApprovedAnimalDrugProducts
www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/ucm079068.htm
§No Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint. The National Antimicrobials Resistance Monitoring System breakpoint was used.

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