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Volume 18, Number 5—May 2012

Research

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Escherichia coli from Humans and Food Animals, United States, 1950–2002

Daniel A. Tadesse, Shaohua Zhao, Emily Tong, Sherry Ayers, Aparna Singh, Mary J. Bartholomew, and Patrick F. McDermottComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Maryland, USA (D.A. Tadesse, S. Zhao, E. Tong, S. Ayers, A. Singh, P.F. McDermott); Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland, USA (M.J. Bartholomew)

Main Article

Table 4

Mann-Kendall and Sen estimates for trend statistics of antimicrobial drug resistance among Escherichia coli isolates of human and animal origin, United States, 1950–2002

Drug Source Years of time series No.* Mann-Kendall trend test Z value Sen’s slope estimate
p value Q† (95% CI)
Ampicillin Human 1950–2001 52 4.91 <0.001 0.59 (0.38–0.81)
Animal 1962–2002 37 3.95 <0.001 0.97 (0.60–1.33)
Cephalothrin Human 1950–2001 52 −2.38 <0.05 −0.20 (−0.34 to 0)
Animal 1962–2002 37 2.52 <0.05 0.43 (0.08–0.77)
Sulfonamide Human 1950–2001 52 3.41 <0.001 0.49 (0.23–0.73)
Animal 1962–2002 37 3.24 <0.01 1.11 (0.34–1.85)
Streptomycin Human 1950–2001 52 1.16 >0.1 0.15 (−0.10 to 0.39)
Animal 1962–2002 37 2.24 <0.05 0.90 (0.14–1.41)
Tetracycline Human 1950–2001 52 3.84 <0.001 0.45 (0.22–0.70)
Animal 1962–2002 37 2.78 <0.01 0.70 (0.21–1.21)
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole Animal 1982–2002 21 2.64 <0.01 1.17 (0.32–2.15)
Chloramphenicol Animal 1962–2002 37 2.75 <0.01 0.30 (0–0.59)
Cefoxitin Animal 1982–2002 21 3.72 <0.001 0.88 (0.28–1.38)
Gentamicin Animal 1978–2002 25 4.53 <0.001 1.28 (0.90–1.69)
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid Animal 1962–2002 37 3.09 <0.01 0.14 (0–0.38)
Kanamycin Animal 1962–2002 7 4.38 <0.001 1.11 (0.59–1.50)

*Number of annual values for calculation of trend analysis.
†Magnitude of annual percentage increase or decrease.

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