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Volume 18, Number 5—May 2012

Research

No Association between 2008–09 Influenza Vaccine and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection, Manitoba, Canada, 2009

Salaheddin M. MahmudComments to Author , Paul Van Caeseele, Gregory Hammond, Carol Kurbis, Tim Hilderman, and Lawrence Elliott
Author affiliations: University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (S.M. Mahmud, P. Van Caeseele, G. Hammond, T. Hilderman, L. Elliott); Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Winnipeg (S.M. Mahmud, C. Kurbis); Cadham Provincial Laboratory, Winnipeg (P.V. Caeseele); Manitoba Health, Winnipeg (T. Hilderman, L. Elliott)

Main Article

Table 4

Effect of receipt of 2008–09 TIV on risk for infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, Manitoba, Canada, 2009*

Data subsets, by demographic and clinical characteristic No. community controls, n = 2,479 No. community case-patients, n = 626 Odds ratio (95% CI)
Model A† Model C‡
Sex
F 1,468 322 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 1.0 (0.7–1.5)
M 1,011 304 0.6 (0.4–0.9) 1.1 (0.7–1.8)
p for interaction 0.304 0.997
Age group, y
0.5–49 1,776 549 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
>50 703 77 1.0 (0.7–1.7) 1.2 (0.6–2.4)
p for interaction 0.563 0.308
Age, y
0.5–4 210 62 1.1 (0.5–2.4) 1.3 (0.3–4.9)
5–19 413 223 1.1 (0.6–1.8) 1.6 (0.7–3.6)
20–34 553 154 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 0.9 (0.5–1.8)
35–49 600 110 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.9 (0.4–1.7)
50–59 331 56 1.4 (0.8–2.6) 1.7 (0.7–4.5)
>60 372 21 1.4 (0.6–3.5) 0.4 (0.1–3.4)
p for interaction 0.882 0.916
Locality of residence
Rural 1,073 285 0.8 (0.5–1.1) 1.0 (0.6–1.7)
Urban 1,406 341 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 1.0 (0.7–1.5)
p for interaction 0.632 0.628
Area of residence
North 362 156 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 1.3 (0.6–2.8)
South 2,117 470 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.9 (0.7–1.3)
p for interaction 0.236 0.255
Epidemic phase, 2009
Apr 27–Jun 20 1,071 423 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.9 (0.6–1.4)
Jun 21–Aug 21 1,408 203 0.8 (0.5–1.1) 1.1 (0.6–1.7)
p for interaction 0.586 0.482
Chronic disease
No 1,931 536 0.8 (0.6–1.0) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
Yes 548 90 1.0 (0.6–1.4) 1.3 (0.7–2.3)
p for interaction 0.402 0.330
Respiratory disease
No 1,456 386 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
Yes 1,023 240 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 1.3 (0.8–2.0)
p for interaction 0.831 0.764

*TIV, inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine.
†Unadjusted model.
‡Model adjusted for age, sex, region of residence, Socioeconomic Factor Index (24), and week of specimen collection, no. hospital admissions and family physician visits in previous 12 mo, pregnancy, presence of a chronic or immunocompromising medical condition, and antiviral drug use. Model also included mutual adjustment for 2007–09 TIV and PPV23.

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