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Volume 18, Number 5—May 2012

Research

No Association between 2008–09 Influenza Vaccine and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection, Manitoba, Canada, 2009

Salaheddin M. MahmudComments to Author , Paul Van Caeseele, Gregory Hammond, Carol Kurbis, Tim Hilderman, and Lawrence Elliott
Author affiliations: University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (S.M. Mahmud, P. Van Caeseele, G. Hammond, T. Hilderman, L. Elliott); Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Winnipeg (S.M. Mahmud, C. Kurbis); Cadham Provincial Laboratory, Winnipeg (P.V. Caeseele); Manitoba Health, Winnipeg (T. Hilderman, L. Elliott)

Main Article

Table 5

Association between receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine and subsequent risk for hospitalization among patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, Manitoba, Canada, 2009*

Variable No. community case-patients, n = 626 No. hospitalized case-patients, n = 205 Odds ratio (95% CI)
Model A† Model B‡ Model C§
Received TIV
2007–08 123 37 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 0.6 (0.3–1.0) 0.4 (0.2–0.8)
2008–09 109 39 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.6 (0.3–1.3)
Vaccinated with
None 466 149 Reference Reference Reference
2007–08 only 51 17 1.0 (0.6–1.9) 0.7 (0.3–1.4) 0.5 (0.2–1.2)
2008–09 only 37 19 1.6 (0.9–2.9) 1.3 (0.6–2.6) 0.8 (0.4–1.8)
Both 72 20 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 0.5 (0.3–1.0) 0.2 (0.1–0.5)
No. TIVs in past 5 y
None 383 119 Reference Reference Reference
>1 243 86 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 0.8 (0.5–1.2)
1–3 187 65 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 1.0 (0.6–1.4) 0.8 (0.5–1.3)
4–5 56 21 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 0.8 (0.4–1.6) 0.5 (0.2–1.3)
5 19 9 1.5 (0.7–3.4) 1.1 (0.4–3.2) 0.6 (0.2–2.3)
Ever received PPV23 41 32 2.6 (1.6–4.3) 1.8 (1.0–3.6) 1.7 (0.8–3.8)
Vaccinated with
None 499 153 Reference Reference Reference
2008–09 TIV only 86 20 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.6 (0.3–1.1) 0.5 (0.2–1.1)
PPV23 only 18 13 2.4 (1.1–4.9) 1.4 (0.6–3.4) 1.2 (0.4–3.1)
Both 23 19 2.7 (1.4–5.1) 1.9 (0.8–4.6) 1.6 (0.5–4.7)

*TIV, inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine; PPV23, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.
†Unadjusted model.
‡Model adjusted for age, sex, region of residence, Socioeconomic Factor Index (24), and week of specimen collection.
§Model adjusted for all model B variables plus no. hospital admissions and family physician visits in previous 12 mo, pregnancy, presence of a chronic or immunocompromising medical condition, and antiviral drug use. Model also included mutual adjustment for 2007–09 TIV and PPV23.

Main Article

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