Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Final Assessment
Paul Brown , Jean-Philippe Brandel, Takeshi Sato, Yosikazu Nakamura, Jan MacKenzie, Robert G. Will, Anna Ladogana, Maurizio Pocchiari, Ellen W. Leschek, and Lawrence B. Schonberger
Author affiliations: Centre à l’Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France (P. Brown); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Paris, France (J.-P. Brandel); Nanohana Clinic, Tokyo, Japan (T. Sato); Jichi Medical University, Yakushiji, Japan (Y. Nakamura); Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (J. MacKenzie, R.G. Will); Istituto Superiore de Sanità, Rome, Italy (A. Ladogana, M. Pocchiari); National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA (E.W. Leschek); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (L.B. Schonberger)
Figure. . . . . Annual incidence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) caused by ingestion of meat products contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent (A) and iatrogenic CJD caused by contaminated dura mater (B) and cadaveric human growth hormone (C), 1982–2011. White bars in panel A represent cases from outside the United Kingdom, which were delayed in parallel with the later appearance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy outside the United Kingdom (not a second wave resulting from codon 129 genotype differences). Two patients are excluded: 1 presymptomatic patient from the United States who received human growth hormone and died of an intercurrent illness and 1 dura mater recipient from the United Kingdom with disease onset in 1978.
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