Multiple Introductions of Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Laos, 2009–2010
Stephanie Sonnberg , Phouvong Phommachanh, Tri Satya Putri Naipospos, Joanna McKenzie, Chintana Chanthavisouk, Som Pathammavong, Daniel Darnell, Phetlamphone Meeduangchanh, Adam M. Rubrum, Mahanakhone Souriya, Bounkhouang Khambounheuang, Richard J. Webby, Bounlom Douangngeun, and Robert G. Webster
Author affiliations: St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA (S. Sonnberg, D. Darnell, A.M. Rubrum, R.J. Webby, R.G. Webster); National Animal Health Centre, Vientiane, Laos (P. Phommachanh, P. Meeduangchanh, B. Douangngeun); Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy (T.S.P. Naipospos, J. McKenzie, C. Chanthavisouk, S. Pathammavong); and; Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Vientiane (M. Souriya, B. Khambounheuang)
Figure A1. . Phylogenetic relationships of hemagglutinin 5 (H5) gene segments of avian influenza viruses (H5N1), Laos, 2009–2010. The tree was rooted in A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (nt 91–919, H5 numbering). Surveillance sequences are indicated in boldface and marked with black (isolates) or open (direct sequences) squares. Bootstrap values >75 are shown. Clade numbers are shown on the right. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site. A/chicken/Laos/Xayathiani-32/2006-like, A/pigeon/Laos/P0022/2007-like, and A/chicken/Laos/LPQ001/2008-like viruses each represent 3 sequences with identical hemagglutinins. Reference viruses were obtained through EpiFlu of the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data and provided by the following laboratories in addition to sequences already in the public domain: A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-407/2010, A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-394/2010, A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-398/2010, A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-399/2010, A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-422/2010, A/chicken/NCVD-404/2010, A/Muscovy_duck/Vietnam/NCVD-401/2010, A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-421/2010 A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-423/2010 (original laboratory: National Centre of Veterinary Diagnostics, Hanoi, Vietnam; submitting laboratory: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA); A/Hunan/2/2009, A/Hunan/1/2009, A/Guizhou/1/2009, A/Guangxi/1/2009, A/environment/Guizhou/2/2009, A/environment/Guizhou/4/2009, A/environment/Guizhou/7/2009, A/environment/Guizhou/9/2009, A/water/Hunan/7/2009A/Guangxi/1/2008, A/Guangdong/1/2008, A/Hunan/1/2008, A/duck feces/Hebei/5/2009 (original and submitting laboratory: World Health Organization Chinese National Influenza Center, Beijing, China), Jiangsu/1-like–A/tree_sparrow/Jiangsu/1/2008–like viruses.
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