Molecular Epidemiologic Investigation of an Anthrax Outbreak among Heroin Users, Europe
Figure. . . Phylogenetic location of the heroin Ba4599 genome on the global Bacillus anthracis phylogenetic tree (1). Ba4599 was isolated from a heroin user who died of anthrax at the beginning of the 2009–2010 European anthrax outbreak. Canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing situated Ba4599 within the A.Br.008/011 clade of the Trans-Eurasian group (arrows). Closer examination of the boxed area (inset) revealed that Ba4599 was closely related to 2 isolates from Turkey, A0149 and A0264. Solid black circles indicate the approximate position of collapsed branches (n = 3) and are labeled with the corresponding number of strains that fall within the node. Branch termini are occupied by whole genome sequenced strains (black stars). SNPs are numbered on a given branch; vertical bars along the A.Br.008/011 branches denote the phylogenetic placement of SNP assays used in our analysis of B. anthracis from heroin users in Europe. Consistency index = 0.923.