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Volume 18, Number 9—September 2012

Dispatch

Infectious Diseases in Children and Body Mass Index in Young Adults

Gina SuhComments to Author , Catherine Ley, and Julie Parsonnet
Author affiliations: Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Distribution of demographic characteristics, infectious disease incidence, and exposure variables during childhood and their association with being overweight in young adulthood, the Philippines, 1983–2005*†

Variable Overall Not overweight, <23 kg/m2 Overweight, >23 kg/m2 p value‡
No. (%) participants 1,863 1,520 (81.6) 343 (18.4)
Adult BMI, kg/m2

Mean

20.73

Median

20.16

25th–75th percentile

18.7–22.2

Range

13.9–41.2
No. assessment visits performed during child’s first 24 mo of life

Mean

11.52 11.5 11.5 0.34

Median

12 12 12

25th–75th percentile

12–12 12–12 12–12

Range, no. (%)

12–1 12–1 12–1

10–12

1,748 (93.8) 1,427 (93.9) 321 (93.6) 0.84

1–9

115 (6.2) 93 (6.1) 22 (6.4)
Proportion of visits with current fever§

Mean

0.07 0.07 0.07 0.57

Median

0.08 0.08 0.08

25th–75th percentile

0–0.08 0–0.08 0–0.83

Range percentile, no. (%)

0–0.70 0–0.70 0–0.33

0–19

1,721 (92.4) 1,405 (92.4) 316 (92.1) 0.03¶

20–39

137 (7.4) 110 (7.2) 27 (7.9)

40–59

4 (0.2) 4 (0.3) 0

60–79

1 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 0

80–100

0 0 0
Proportion of visits with reported URI§

Mean

0.72 0.72 0.74 0.05

Median

0.75 0.75 0.75

25th–75th percentile

0.58–0.88 0.58–0.88

Range percentile, no. (%)

0–1 0–1

0–19

24 (1.3) 21 (1.4) 3 (0.9) 0.26

20–39

78 (4.2) 68 (4.5) 10 (2.9)

40–59

426 (22.9) 358 (23.6) 68 (19.8)

60–79

553 (29.7) 447 (29.4) 106 (30.9)

80–100

782 (42.0) 626 (41.2) 156 (45.5)
Proportion of visits with reported diarrhea§

Mean

0.19 0.19 0.19 0.84

Median

0.17 0.17 0.17

25th–75th percentile

0–0.25 0.08–0.25 0.83–0.25

Range percentile, no. (%)

0–1 0–1 0–0.67

0–19

1,135 (61.0) 928 (61.1) 207 (60.3) <0.001¶

20–39

507 (27.2) 416 (27.4) 91 (26.5)

40–59

200 (10.7) 160 (10.5) 40 (11.7)

60–79

17 (0.9) 12 (0.8) 5 (1.5)

80–100

4 (0.2) 4 (0.3) 0
Duration of diarrhea, d§

Mean

3.42 3.39 3.58 0.69

Median

2.00 2.0 2.0

25th–75th percentile

0–5 0–5 0–6

Range

0–24 0–24 0–21
Proportion of visits when child was crawling in unsanitary conditions

Mean

0.33 0.34 0.31 0.13

Median

0.27 0.33 0.25

25–75%

0.08–0.56 0.08–0.58 0.08–0.50

Range

0–1 0–1 0–0.92
Male sex, no. (%) 980 (52.6) 789 (51.9) 191 (55.7) 0.14
Highest grade attained, y

Mean

10.41 10.34 10.68 0.21

Median

11.00 11 11

25–75%

9–12 9–12 9–12

Range

0–16 0–16 16–1
Birth weight, kg

Mean

3.04 3.04 3.09 0.18

Median

3.00 3.00 3.06

25th–75th percentile

2.72–3.31 2.72–3.32 2.78–3.36

Range

0.91–5.21 0.91–5.22 1.96–4.80
BMI at age 24 mo

Mean

15.58 15.51 15.89 <0.001

Median

15.54 15.48 15.94

25th–75th percentile

14.78–16.36 14.73–16.28 15.09–16.64

Range

11.99–20.62 11.99–19.92 12.28–20.62
Persons per room

Mean

2.53 2.52 2.45 0.15

Median

2.00 2.0 2.0

25th–75th percentile

2.49–3.31 1.50–3.00 1.40–3.00

Range

0.90–5.21 0.33–13.00 0.33–10.00
Mother’s schooling or training, y§

Mean

7.49 7.26 8.50 <0.001

Median

6.00 6.00 8.00

25–75%

5.00–10.00 5–10 6–11

Range

0–19 0–18 0–19
Feces observed around the home, no. (%) 902 (48.4) 735 (48.4) 167 (48.7) 0.96
Covered source of water, no. (%) 1,549 (83.1) 1,242 (81.7) 307 (89.5) <0.001
Flush toilet, no. (%) 97 (5.2) 73 (4.8) 24 (7.0) 0.11

*BMI, body mass index; URI, upper respiratory infection. Blank spaces indicate not applicable.
†The young adults were ≈22 y.
‡Test of proportions or of medians, comparing groups that were not overweight and those that were overweight.
§The correlation between the number and the proportion of visits for each symptom was high (coefficient range: 0.86 [URI] to 0.99 [fever, ear discharge]). The correlation between proportion of visits when child had reported fever, URI, and/or diarrhea was moderate (coefficient range: 0.17–0.25). The correlation between the proportion of visits when diarrhea was reported and the number of reported days with diarrhea was high (r = 0.73). Maternal educational level was not well correlated with child’s reported fever, URI, or diarrhea (coefficient range: –0.07 to –0.11).
¶Fisher exact test.

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