Volume 18, Number 9—September 2012
Multiple-Insecticide Resistance in Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes, Southern Côte d’Ivoire
|Insecticide||No. tested||Status||No.||No. per genotype
||Odds ratio§||p value|
|Bendiocarb||86||Alive||49||0||49||0||50||100||0.40 × 10–12|
*F and L represent mutant resistant alleles (phenylalanine) and wild-type alleles (leucine), respectively; S and G represent mutant resistant alleles (serine) and wild-type alleles (glycine), respectively. No resistant homozygotes GG were found among the 186 mosquitoes genotyped for Ace-1R by restriction fragment length polymorphism (a subset of 48 was further screened by using the TaqMan assay; congruence between the 2 methods was 100%).
†The frequencies were calculated for each insecticide and mosquito status (alive/dead) after exposure.
‡1014F represent the kdr frequencies.
§Genotypic odds ratios (ORs) are shown because these exceed allelic ORs for DDT (recessive model), bendiocarb, and fenitrothion (both overdominant models), and are similar for permethrin and deltamethrin. For bendiocarb and fenitrothion absence of GG genotypes in the “Alive” group means that ORs are infinity, therefore ORs are shown if one GG was present. F and L represent mutant resistant alleles (phenylalanine) and wild-type alleles (leucine), respectively; S and G represent mutant resistant alleles (serine) and wild-type alleles.
¶119S represents the Ace-1R frequencies.