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Volume 19, Number 1—January 2013

Research

Risk Factors for Nipah Virus Infection among Pteropid Bats, Peninsular Malaysia

Sohayati A. Rahman, Latiffah HassanComments to Author , Jonathan H. Epstein, Zaini C. Mamat, Aziz M. Yatim, Sharifah S. Hassan, Hume E. Field, Tom Hughes, Justin Westrum, M.S. Naim, Arshad S. Suri, A. Aziz Jamaluddin, Peter Daszak, and the Henipavirus Ecology Research Group
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Veterinary Research Institute, Ipoh, Malaysia (S.A. Rahman, Z.C. Mamat, A.M. Yatim, M.S. Naim, A.A. Jamaluddin); Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia (L. Hassan, A.S. Suri); EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York, USA (J.H. Epstein, T. Hughes, J. Westrum, P. Daszak); Monash University, Selangor, (S.S. Hassan); Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (H.E. Field)

Main Article

Table 3

Univariate analysis of independent variables and Nipah virus serostatus of 2 Pteropus bat species surveyed in a cross-sectional survey (without pup data), Peninsular Malaysia, January 2004–October 2006*

Species and risk factor No. positive/no. tested (%) p value† OR (95% CI)
P. vampyrus

Age

Juvenile

14/56 (25) Referent 1.00

Adult

68/193 (35.2) 0.151 1.63 (0.83–3.19)

Sex

M

38/135 (28.1) Referent 1.00

F

44/114 (38.6) 0.081 1.6 (0.94–2.73)

Female reproductive status

Dry

21/58 (36.2) Referent 1.00

Pregnant

6/14 (42.3) 0.645 1.32 (0.40–4.33)

Carrying a pup

3/7 (42.9) 0.731 1.32 (0.27–6.48)

Nursing

11/17 (64.7) 0.042 3.23 (1.04–9.99)

Juvenile


3/18 (16.7)
0.130
0.35 (0.09–1.36)
P. hypomelanus

Age

Juvenile

0/31 (0) NA NA

Adult

13/86 (15.1) NA NA

Sex

M

7/58(12.1) Referent 1.00

F

6/59 (10.2) 0.744 0.85 (0.26–2.62)

Female reproductive status

Dry

2/23 (8.7) Referent 1.00

Pregnant

4/14 (28.6) 0.112 4.20 (0.65–26.89)

Carrying a pup

NA NA NA

Nursing

NA NA NA

Juvenile

0/22 (0) NA NA

*OR, odds ratio; NA, not applicable.
†By χ2 test, Fisher exact test, or simple logistic regression.

Main Article

1Members of the Henipavirus Ecology Research Group are listed on the group’s website (www.ecohealthalliance.org/herg).

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