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Volume 19, Number 12—December 2013

Dispatch

Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Family Members in the United States

Despina G. Contopoulos-IoannidisComments to Author , Yvonne Maldonado, and Jose G. Montoya
Author affiliations: Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA (D.G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Y. Maldonado, J.G. Montoya); Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory, Palo Alto, California, USA (D.G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis, J.G. Montoya)

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Table 1

Demographic and clinical information for persons in the 18 group 1 study families identified from data on acute toxoplasmosis cases collected during 1991–2010 by the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory, Palo Alto, California, USA*

IC patient no. Clinical information for IC No. additional household
members tested Infection status of additional household members Clinical information for additional household members Risk factors reported by ≥1 household member
IC-1 LN 2 Wife: acute infection Pregnant, first trimester Ate raw lamb
Daughter: no infection NA
(Baby girl: status not ascertained)
IC-2 8 wks pregnant 1 Husband: acute infection LN NR
(Fetus: AF PCR–)
IC-3 8 wks pregnant 1 Husband: acute infection Asymptomatic Contact with cat feces, eating undercooked meat, gardening
(Baby boy: could not R/O CT; no follow-up beyond 1 mo of age)
IC-4 27 wks pregnant 2 Husband: acute infection NA NR
Son: acute infection NA
(Fetus: AF PCR–)
IC-5 11 wks pregnant 1 Husband: acute infection NA None
(Fetus: AF PCR–)
IC-6 Infant with CT 2 (Mother: acute infection) NA NR
Father: acute infection NA
Brother: acute infection NA
IC-7 LN, fever, headache 3 Wife: acute infection LN Poor cleaning of cooking surfaces
Daughter 1: acute infection Posterior cervical LN
Household member: chronic infection NA
Son/daughter 2: not tested
IC-8 13 wks pregnant 1 Husband: acute infection NA Ate deer meat that had positive results for T. gondii by PCR
(Baby Boys A and B: status not ascertained)
IC-9 22 wks pregnant 1 Husband: acute infection NA NR
(Fetus: NA)
IC-10 Pregnant, third trimester 2 Daughter 1: Recent infection Asymptomatic Children played in uncovered sandbox
Daughter 2: acute infection Asymptomatic
(Baby girl A: asymptomatic; CSF PCR–, could not R/O CT;
baby girl-B: CT, macular scar, ascites, AF PCR+, CSF PCR+)
IC-11 Infant with CT† 2 (Mother: recent infection) NA NR
Father: recent infection NA
Sister: no infection NA
IC-12 LN, fever, hepatitis 3 Wife: acute infection LN Ate raw lamb
Household member 1: acute infection LN
Household member 2: acute infection NA
IC-13 21 wks pregnant 1 Husband: acute infection LN Ate venison tartare
(Fetus: CT, ascites, hydrocephalus; abortion)
IC-14 Infant with CT 1 (Mother: acute infection) NA Ate bear meat; ate deer meat that had positive results for T. gondii by PCR
Father: acute infection Fever, flu-like symptoms
IC-15 9 wks pregnant 1 Husband: acute infection NA None
(Baby boy: status not ascertained)
IC-16 Febrile illness (fibromyalgia)‡ 3 Daughter 1: Recent infection NA Ate deer meat that had positive results for T. gondii by PCR
Daughter 2: no infection NA
Grandson: no infection NA
IC-17 Eye disease 3 Son: acute infection NA NR
Daughter 1: acute infection Asymptomatic
Daughter 2: no infection NA
IC-18 LN 1 Wife: Recent infection NA NR

*Mother-infant pairs were counted as 1 unit/household member; infection status of these is shown in parenthesis. IC, index case-patient; LN, lymphadenopathy; NA, not available; NR, not reported; AF, amniotic fluid; R/O, rule out; CT, congenital toxoplasmosis; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid.
†Infant with CT with hydrocephalus, high bilirubin, abnormal liver function tests, low platelets, and positive PCR results on CSF.
‡Female patient taking chronic corticosteroids; patient died.

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