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Volume 19, Number 2—February 2013

Dispatch

Risk Factors for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among Students, Beijing, China

Yang Zheng1, Wei Duan1, Peng Yang, Yi Zhang, Xiaoli Wang, Li Zhang, Surabhi S. Liyanage, and Quanyi WangComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China (Y. Zheng, W. Duan, P. Yang, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang); University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (S.S. Liyanage)

Main Article

Table 1

Bivariate analysis of potential factors associated with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection among students ≤18 years, Beijing, China*

Variable No. (%) case-patients, n = 304 No. (%) controls, n = 608 p value OR (95%CI)
Vaccination against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09
No 276 (90.8) 264 (43.4) Referent
Yes 28 (9.2) 344 (56.6) <0.001 0.08 (0.05–0.12)
Vaccination with pneumococcal vaccine
No 279 (91.8) 542 (89.1) Referent
Yes 25 (8.2) 66 (10.9) 0.193 0.72 (0.43–1.18)
Use of traditional Chinese medicine
No 103 (33.9) 175 (28.8) Referent
Yes 201 (66.1) 433 (71.2) 0.068 0.73 (0.51–1.02)
Eye rubbing
No 163 (53.6) 395 (65.0) Referent
Yes 141 (46.4) 213 (35.0) 0.001 1.68 (1.25–2.26)
Handwashing immediately after sneezing
No 151 (49.7) 205 (33.7) Referent
Yes 153 (50.3) 403 (66.3) <0.001 0.48 (0.36–0.65)
Use of soap during handwashing
No 37 (12.2) 63 (10.4) Referent
Yes 267 (87.8) 545 (89.6) 0.402 0.83 (0.53–1.29)
Handwashing after lessons in communal classrooms
No 176 (57.9) 285 (46.9) Referent
Yes 128 (42.1) 323 (53.1) 0.002 0.63 (0.48–0.84)
Handwashing after participation in outdoor sports activities
No 46 (15.1) 69 (11.3) Referent
Yes 258 (84.9) 539 (88.7) 0.088 0.69 (0.45–1.06)
Duration of handwashing, s
<20 176 (57.9) 347 (57.1) Referent
≥20 128 (42.1) 261 (42.9) 0.800 0.96 (0.71–1.30)
Sleep time, h/day
<7 99 (32.6) 162 (26.6) Referent
≥7 205 (67.4) 446 (73.4) 0.030 0.67 (0.47–0.96)
Sharing of tableware with classmates
No 263 (86.5) 534 (87.8) Referent
Yes 41 (13.5) 74 (12.2) 0.556 1.14 (0.74–1.75)
Classroom space/student, m2
<1.6 223 (73.4) 412 (67.8) Referent
≥1.6 81 (26.6) 196 (32.2) <0.001 0.17 (0.07–0.41)
Participation in outdoor activities after class
No 232 (76.3) 411 (67.6) Referent
Yes 72 (23.7) 197 (32.4) 0.003 0.58 (0.40–0.83)
Frequency of classroom ventilation
>1×/h 109 (35.9) 160 (26.3) Referent
1×/h 195 (64.1) 448 (73.9) 0.002 0.61 (0.44–0.83)
Having meals in small restaurants near school
No 232 (76.3) 460 (75.7) Referent
Yes 72 (23.7) 148 (24.3) 0.808 0.96 (0.67–1.37)
Modes of transportation to and from school
Closed (taxi, public transportation, school bus, car) 188 (61.8) 325 (53.5) Referent
Open (walking, bicycle, motorcycle) 116 (38.2) 283 (46.5) 0.009 0.66 (0.48–0.90)
Participation in clustered social activities after school closure
No 266 (87.5) 559 (91.9) Referent
Yes 38 (12.5) 49 (8.1) 0.023 1.76 (1.08–2.86)

*Bivariate conditional logistic regression was used to generate p values. OR, odds ratio.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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