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Volume 19, Number 2—February 2013

Perspective

Rift Valley Fever and a New Paradigm of Research and Development for Zoonotic Disease Control

Osman DarComments to Author , Sabrina McIntyre, Sue Hogarth, and David Heymann
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK (O. Dar, S. McIntyre, S. Hogarth); Chatham House Centre on Global Health Security, London (D. Heymann); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (D. Heymann)

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Table

Major Rift Valley fever outbreaks and reported cases among humans, 1997–2010*

Outbreak dates Geographic distribution Estimated no. cases No. cases reported No. deaths confirmed Precipitation Control measures
1997 Dec–1998 Jan
Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania
89,000
No documented reports
478
Heavy rainfall and flooding
Active surveillance; safety education; distribution of masks, gloves; slaughterhouse monitoring
1998 Sep–Dec
Mauritania
No documented estimates
300–400
6
Heavy rainfall
Active surveillance; public awareness/education; mosquito control; animal movement control
2000 Aug–2001 Sep
Saudi Arabia, Yemen
20,000†
886
123
Rainfall; virus introduction
Active surveillance; public awareness/education; mosquito control; animal movement control
2006 Nov–2007 Mar Kenya 75,000 700 158 Heavy rainfall and flooding
Active surveillance; public awareness/education; mosquito control; ban on livestock slaughtering; closure of livestock market; vaccination Jan 2007
Somalia 30,000 114 51

Tanzania
40,000
264
109
2007 Sep–2008 Jan
Sudan
75,000
747
230
Heavy rainfall and flooding
Active surveillance; public awareness/education; targeted vaccination; ban of livestock imports by Saudi Arabia and Egypt
2008 Jan–Jun
Madagascar
10,000
476
19
Heavy rainfall
Active surveillance; public awareness; mosquito control; animal movement control
2008 Oct–2009 May
Madagascar
No documented estimates
236
7
Heavy rainfall
Active surveillance; public awareness; mosquito control; animal movement control
2010 Feb–2010 May
South Africa
No documented estimates
242
26
Sustained heavy rains
Public awareness/education; mosquito control
2010 Sep–2010 Dec Mauritania No documented estimates 63 13 Heavy rainfall Public awareness; mosquito control; animal movement control

*Sources: (624). FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
†Data available for Jizan region only.

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