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Volume 19, Number 2—February 2013

Synopsis

Nipah Virus Infection Outbreak with Nosocomial and Corpse-to-Human Transmission, Bangladesh

Hossain M.S. SazzadComments to Author , M. Jahangir Hossain, Emily S. Gurley, Kazi M.H. Ameen, Shahana Parveen, M. Saiful Islam, Labib I. Faruque, Goutam Podder, Sultana S. Banu, Michael K. Lo, Pierre E. Rollin, Paul A. Rota, Peter Daszak, Mahmudur Rahman, and Stephen P. Luby
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh (H.M.S. Sazzad, M.J. Hossain, E.S. Gurley, S. Parveen, M.S. Islam, L.I. Faruque, G. Podder, S.P. Luby); Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research, Dhaka (K.M.H. Ameen, S.S. Banu, M. Rahman); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (M.K. Lo, P.E. Rollin, P.A. Rota, S.P. Luby); EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York, USA (P. Daszak)

Main Article

Table 2

Bivariate analysis of risk factors for Nipah virus infection, Faridpur, Bangladesh 2010*

Risk factor No. (%) case-patients with risk factors, n = 15 No. (%) controls with risk factors, n = 58 mOR (95% CI) p value
Male sex 8 (53) 26 (46) 1.3 (0.4–4) 0.62
Climbed tree
5 (33)
16 (29)
1.6 (0.7–3.7)
0.24
Physical contact with living animal
Cow 11 (73) 32 (57) 2.5 (0.6–9.9) 0.2
Goat 5 (33) 26 (46) 0.4 (0.1–2.2) 0.3
Pig 0 1 (2) Undefined Undefined
Chicken 10 (67) 39 (70) 0.9 (0.3–2.9) 0.83
Duck 8 (53) 20 (36) 1.9 (0.7–5.8) 0.23
Dog 1 (7) 4 (7) 0.9 (0.1–7.9) 0.91
Cat 1 (6) 7 (13) 0.4 (0.1–3.9) 0.45
Fruit bat
0
0
Undefined
Undefined
Physical contact with sick animal
Cow 0 4 (7) Undefined Undefined
Goat 1 (7) 1 (2) 0.9 (0.4–2) 0.76
Chicken 0 9 (16) Undefined Undefined
Duck
1 (7)
3 (5)
1.2 (0.1–15)
0.89
Ate any animal that had been sick 1 (7) 3 (5) 1.2 (0.1–15) 0.89
Had seen bats in or around residence at night
12 (80)
39 (70)
1.2 (0.1–15)
0.89
Drank raw DPS 9 (69) 17 (30) 7.9 (1.6–40) 0.012
Drank DPS before 9:00 am
8 (53)
16 (100)
Undefined
Undefined
DPS was
Purchased 2 (20) 5 (33) 0.4 (0.04–4.8) 0.49
Given 2 (20) 4 (27) Undefined Undefined
Collected by a family member
6 (67)
5 (33)
Undefined
Undefined
Consumption of raw DPS during month before onset of illness, per day
0 5 (33) 40 (71) 1
<1 glass 4 (27) 4 (7) 32 (2.1–474) 0.01
1 glass 3 (20) 9 (16) 4.3 (0.6–29) 0.13
>1 glass
3 (20)
3 (5)
22 (1.2–404)
0.04
Is DPS harvester by profession 4 (27) 4 (7) 8.7 (0.9–83) 0.06
Household member harvests DPS by profession 4 (27) 4 (7) 8.7 (0.9–83) 0.06
Household distributes or sells DPS
4 (27)
5 (9)
10 (1.1–100)
0.04
Ate fruit
Banana 11 (73) 33 (60) 1.9 (0.5–6.5) 0.32
Boroy/plum 7 (47) 29 (53) 0.8 (0.2–3.1) 0.75
Papaya 8 (53) 29 (52) 1.1 (0.3–3.2) 0.95
Sofeda 3 (20) 14 (25) 0.7 (0.1–3.7) 0.67
Kamranga 0 6 (11) Undefined Undefined
Guava 4 (29) 14 (25) 1.4 (0.2–8.4) 0.71
Tamarind 1 (7) 8 (14) 0.4 (0.4–3.7) 0.42
Custard apple
1 (7)
1 (2)
Undefined
Undefined
Visited another subdistrict
5 (33)
14 (25)
1.6 (0.4–5.7)
0.47
Touched someone with fever and altered mental status who died later 4 (29) 2 (4) Undefined Undefined
Was in same room as someone with fever and altered mental status who died later 4 (29) 2 (4) Undefined Undefined

*mOR, matched odds ratio; DPS, date palm sap.

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