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Volume 19, Number 3—March 2013

Research

Treatment Outcomes for Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection

Max R. O’DonnellComments to Author , Nesri Padayatchi, Charlotte Kvasnovsky, Lise Werner, Iqbal Master, and C. Robert Horsburgh
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA (M.R. O’Donnell); Centre for AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, Durban, South Africa (M.R. O’Donnell, N. Padayatchi, L. Werner); University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (C. Kvasnovsky); King George V Hospital, Sydenham, South Africa (I. Master); Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (C.R. Horsburgh, Jr.); Boston University School of Medicine, Boston (C.R. Horsburgh, Jr.)

Main Article

Table 1

Demographic characteristics of patients with XDR TB, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa*

Characteristic All patients, n = 114 Female patients, n = 65 Male patients, n = 49 p value
Sex
M 49 (43.0) NA NA NA
F
65 (57.0)
NA
NA
NA
Age, y
18–25 16 (14.0) 16 (24.6) 0 <0.0001
26–35 42 (36.8) 27 (41.5) 15 (30.6) <0.0001
36–50 46 (40.4) 21 (32.3) 25 (51.0) NA
>50 10 (8.8) 1 (1.5) 9 (18.4) NA
Median age (IQR)
35 (30–42)
31 (26–37)
39 (35–47)
NA
HIV status
Positive 82 (71.9) 52 (80.0) 30 (61.2) 0.0153
Negative 25 (21.9) 8 (12.3) 17 (34.7) NA
Unknown
7 (6.1)
5 (7.7)
2 (4.1)
NA
CD4 cell count/mm3
Known 55 (67.1) 38 (73.1) 17 (56.7) 0.1487
Not determined 27 (32.9) 14 (26.9) 13 (43.3) 0.1426
Median (IQR)
197 (80–300)
222 (71–316)
130 (83–254)
NA
Receiving ART†
Yes 50 (61.0) 34 (65.4) 16 (53.3) 0.3492
No
32 (39.0)
18 (34.6)
14 (46.7)
NA
Severe adverse event‡
Yes 29 (25.4) 29 (25.4) 12 (24.5) 1.0000
No
85 (74.6)
48 (73.9)
37 (75.5)
NA
Previous TB treatment
Yes 92 (80.7) 53 (81.5) 39 (79.6) 0.7216
No 15 (13.2) 9 (13.9) 6 (12.2) NA
Unknown
7 (6.1)
3 (4.6)
4 (8.2)
NA
Previous MDR TB diagnosis
Yes 69 (60.5) 41 (63.1) 28 (57.1) 0.5649
No
45 (39.5)
24 (36.9)
21 (42.9)
NA
Health care worker
Yes 6 (5.3) 4 (6.2) 2 (4.1) 0.6982
No
108 (94.7)
61 (93.9)
47 (95.9)
NA
Type of TB
Pulmonary 103 (90.4) 58 (89.2) 45 (91.8) NA
Extrapulmonary
11 (9.7)
7 (10.8)
4 (8.2)
NA
Culture conversion, mo§
None 72 (63.2) 40 (61.5) 32 (65.3) 0.2523
<2 16 (14.0) 7 (10.8) 9 (18.4) NA
>2 26 (22.8) 18 (27.7) 8 (16.3) NA

*Values are no. (%) unless otherwise indicated. XDR TB, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis; NA, not applicable; IQR, interquartile range; ART, antiretroviral therapy; MDR TB, multidrug-resistant TB.
†Among HIV-positive patients only.
‡Resulted in changes in clinical status or electrolyte abnormalities or required change of TB treatment regimen.
§After initiation of treatment.

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