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Volume 19, Number 5—May 2013

Research

Targeting Surveillance for Zoonotic Virus Discovery

Jordan Levinson1, Tiffany L. Bogich1, Kevin J. Olival, Jonathan H. Epstein, Christine K. Johnson, William Karesh, and Peter DaszakComments to Author 
Author affiliations: EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York, USA (J. Levinson, T.L. Bogich, K.J. Olival, J.H. Epstein, W. Karesh, P. Daszak); National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA (T.L. Bogich); Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (T.L. Bogich); School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA (C.K. Johnson)

Main Article

Table

Logistic regression analysis with bias reduction of whether a host presents with disease for 234 mammal–virus pairs from 5 taxonomic orders of mammals and 10 taxonomic families of viruses*

Predictor† Values for categorical predictors relative to level of reference category
Coefficient SE Z test statistic p value Odds ratio 95% CI
Constant
–0.33
0.58
–0.56
0.58
0.72
0.23–2.26
Virus family (reference category: Flaviviridae)
Bunyaviridae –1.74 0.64 –2.71 0.01 0.18 0.05–0.62
Filoviridae 3.26 1.83 1.78 0.08 26.07 0.72–944.49
Herpesviridae 0.10 0.65 0.16 0.87 1.11 0.31–3.94
Paramyxoviridae 3.43 1.42 2.41 0.02 30.95 1.90–503.52
Picornaviridae 1.12 0.76 1.48 0.14 3.08 0.69–13.68
Poxviridae 2.29 0.81 2.82 <0.001 9.90 2.01–48.72
Reoviridae 2.13 1.05 2.02 0.04 8.39 1.07–66.12
Rhabdoviridae 9.20 2.39 3.85 <0.001
Togaviridae
–0.36
0.63
−–0.58
0.56
0.70
0.20–2.38
Species order (reference category: Artiodactyla)
Chiroptera –6.47 1.81 –3.57 <0.001 0.00 0–0.05
Perissodactyla 0.58 0.76 0.77 0.44 1.79 0.40–8.03
Primates –0.16 0.68 –0.24 0.81 0.85 0.22–3.24
Rodentia –1.12 0.67 –1.66 0.10 0.33 0.09–1.22

*The subset of data used was selected by using a cutoff of at least 3 records in the database to avoid making inference about host orders or virus families, for which we had very little information.
†Virus and host reference groups were selected as those for which sample size was sufficiently large and symptomatic infection was moderate (see Figure 1).
‡All host–virus pairs were symptomatic.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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