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Volume 19, Number 6—June 2013

Dispatch

Endemic Norovirus Infections in Children, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2009–2010

Phan Vu Tra My, Corinne Thompson, Hoang Le Phuc, Pham Thi Ngoc Tuyet, Ha Vinh, Nguyen Van Minh Hoang, Pham Van Minh, Nguyen Thanh Vinh, Cao Thu Thuy, Tran Thi Thu Nga, Nguyen Thi Thu Hau, James Campbell, Nguyen Tran Chinh, Tang Chi Thuong, Ha Manh Tuan, Jeremy Farrar, and Stephen BakerComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (P.V. Tra My, C. Thompson, N.V.M. Hoang, P.V. Minh, N.T. Vinh, C.T. Thuy, T.T.T. Nga, J. Campbell, J. Farrar, S. Baker); Oxford University, Oxford, UK (C. Thompson, J. Campbell, J. Farrar, S. Baker); Children’s Hospital 1, Ho Chi Minh City (H.L. Phuc, T.C. Thuong); Children’s Hospital 2, Ho Chi Minh City (P.T.N. Tuyet, N.T.T. Hau, H.M. Tuan); Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City (H. Vinh, N.T. Chinh); The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK (S. Baker)

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Table 1

Baseline characteristics of NoV-positive and NoV-negative case-patients and control participants, Vietnam, 2009–2010*

NoV positive, n = 241 NoV negative, n = 1,126 NoV positive, n = 15 NoV negative, n = 592
Male sex
147 (61.0)
724 (64.3)

8 (53.3)
314 (53.0)
Mean age, mo (range)
13.3 (2–45)
15.8 (1–59)

15.8 (2.3–52)
16.8 (0–60)
Age groups, mo
<6 24 (10.0) 165 (14.7) 3 (20.0) 98 (16.6)
7–12 102 (42.3) 375 (33.3) 4 (26.7) 208 (35.1)
13–18 76 (31.5) 245 (21.8) 3 (20.0) 113 (19.1)
19–24 25 (10.4) 147 (13.1) 3 (20.0) 56 (9.5)
24–60
14 (5.8)
194 (17.2)

2 (13.4)
117 (19.8)
Poor Z score†
18 (7.5)
73 (6.5)

1 (6.7)
75 (12.7)
Breastfed
187 (77.6)
790 (70.2)

11 (73.3)
452 (76.4)
Daily activity
Day care/nursery school 30 (12.5) 194 (16.4) 4 (26.7) 89 (15.2)
Home 211 (87.6) 938 (83.6) 11 (73.3) 498 (84.8)

*Values are no. case (%) unless otherwise specified. Case-patients indicate patients who had diarrhea; controls indicate asymptomatic (diarrhea-free) children. Study dates span May 2009–December 2010. NoV, norovirus; WHO, World Health Organization.
†Weight-for-age Z score calculated based on WHO Child Growth Standards guidelines (www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/technical_report/en/); Z score below −2 was considered to indicate that a child was malnourished.

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