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Volume 19, Number 8—August 2013

Research

Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase– and AmpC-Producing Enterobacteria in Healthy Broiler Chickens, Germany

Felix Reich, Viktoria Atanassova, and Günter KleinComments to Author 
Author affiliations: University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany

Main Article

Figure

Phenotype distribution and dendrogram of 78 enterobacteria isolates from broiler chickens at the slaughterhouse, Germany, 2010. The dendrogram was generated by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and Pearson correlation; trees were collapsed at a cutoff value of 80%. CEP, cefepime; FEP/CLA, cefepime/clavulanic acid; CTX, cefotaxime; COX, cefoxitin; CPP, cefpodoxime; CTX/CLA, cefpodoxime/clavulanic acid; CAZ, ceftazidime; CAZ/CLA, ceftazidime/clavulanic acid; ATM, aztreonam; TZP

Figure. . . Phenotype distribution and dendrogram of 78 enterobacteria isolates from broiler chickens at the slaughterhouse, Germany, 2010. The dendrogram was generated by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and Pearson correlation; trees were collapsed at a cutoff value of 80%. CEP, cefepime; FEP/CLA, cefepime/clavulanic acid; CTX, cefotaxime; COX, cefoxitin; CPP, cefpodoxime; CTX/CLA, cefpodoxime/clavulanic acid; CAZ, ceftazidime; CAZ/CLA, ceftazidime/clavulanic acid; ATM, aztreonam; TZP, piperacilin/tazobactam; CIP, ciprofloxacin; NAL, nalidixic acid; CHL, chloramphenico; TET, tetracycline; TMP/SXT, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; MER, meropenem; GEN, gentamicin; STR, streptomycin; TEM, CTX-M, and SHV are extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) types. Light gray, non–wild-type according to ESBL; ECOFF, epidemiologic cutoff value (16); dark gray, clinically resistant (12,15); *fc, cecal content; cc, carcass after chilling; †E.c., Escherichia coli; P.m., Proteus mirabilis; En.c., Enterobacter cloacae; ‡AmpC-test (13); gray, positive test; ESBL confirmation test with cloxacillin containing agar; A–G: clades; I–XIV, clusters.

Main Article

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