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Volume 19, Number 8—August 2013

Research

Comparison of 2 Assays for Diagnosing Rotavirus and Evaluating Vaccine Effectiveness in Children with Gastroenteritis

Jacqueline E. TateComments to Author , Slavica Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Ka Ian Tam, Freda C. Lyde, Daniel C. Payne, Peter Szilagyi, Kathryn Edwards, Mary Allen Staat, Geoffrey A. Weinberg, Caroline B. Hall, James Chappell, Monica McNeal, Jon R. Gentsch, Michael D. Bowen, and Umesh D. Parashar
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (J.E. Tate, S. Mijatovic-Rustempasic, K.I. Tam, F.C. Lyde, D.C. Payne, J.R. Gentsch, M.D. Bowen, U.D. Parashar); University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA (P. Szilagyi, G.A. Weinberg, C.B. Hall); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA (K. Edwards, J. Chappell); Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA (M.A. Staat, M. McNeal)

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Table 1

Sociodemographic characteristics of patients enrolled in a study of the use of diagnostic assays for rotavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis, 3 New Vaccine Surveillance Network sites (USA), October 2008–October 2009*

Characteristic Children with AGE
Healthy controls
Rotavirus EIA+, 
n = 158 Rotavirus EIA–, 
n = 490 p value† All, 
n = 500 p value‡ p value§
Median age, mo (IQR)
23 (13–30)
12 (5–23)
<0.001
12 (4–20)
<0.001
0.14
Race 0.04 <0.001 <0.001
  White 74 (47) 177 (36) 113 (23)
  Black 45 (28) 196 (40) 293 (59)
  Asian 1 (1) 6 (1) 7 (1)
  Other 38 (24) 111 (23) 84 (17)
  Unknown
0
0


3 (1)


Hispanic ethnicity
27 (17)
95 (19)
0.56

74 (15)
0.48
0.07
Premature birth
14 (9)
53 (11)
0.47

51 (10)
0.61
0.74
Ever breast-fed
110 (70)
310 (63)
0.16

286 (57)
0.006
0.04
Attended day care
55 (35)
150 (31)
0.28

88 (18)
<0.001
<0.001
No. doses rotavirus vaccine received <0.001 <0.001 0.02
  0 105 (66) 171 (34) 178 (36)
  1 9 (6) 57 (12) 53 (11)
  2 8 (5) 72 (15) 74 (15)
  3 22 (14) 164 (34) 187 (37)
  Ineligible 8 (5) 15 (3) 6 (1)
  Unknown 6 (4) 10 (2) 1 (0)
  Data missing
0
1 (0)


1 (0)


Insurance status 0.01 <0.001 <0.001
  Public 86 (54) 335 (68) 430 (86)
  Private 58 (37) 117 (24) 49 (10)
  Public and private 3 (2) 14 (3) 6 (1)
  None 10 (6) 23 (5) 14 (3)
  Unknown
1 (1)
1 (0)


1 (0)


Maternal education 0.33 0.07 0.48
  Less than high school 44 (28) 134 (27) 141 (28)
  High school 40 (25) 153 (31) 170 (34)
  More than high school
74 (47)
203 (41)


189 (38)


Age of other child in household
  <6 mo 12 (8) 18 (4) 0.04 26 (5) 0.26 0.24
  6–23 mo 23 (15) 50 (10) 0.13 67 (13) 0.71 0.12
  2–4 y 51 (32) 145 (30) 0.52 153 (31) 0.69 0.73
  <5 y
74 (47)
190 (39)
0.07

214 (43)
0.37
0.20
Season specimen collected <0.001 <0.001 0.01
  January–June 141 (89) 347 (71) 316 (63)
  July–December
17 (11)
143 (29)


183 (37)


Study site 0.34 0.13 0.72
  Nashville, TN 39 (25) 149 (30) 163 (33)
  Rochester, NY 54 (34) 146 (30) 140 (28)
  Cincinnati, OH 65 (41) 195 (40) 197 (39)

*Values are no. (%) except as indicated. AGE, acute gastroenteritis; EIA, enzyme immunoassay; +, positive; −, negative; IQR, interquartile range.
†Children with specimens positive vs. negative for rotavirus by EIA.
‡Children with specimens positive for rotavirus by EIA vs. healthy children.
§Children with specimens negative for rotavirus by EIA vs. healthy children.

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