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Volume 19, Number 8—August 2013

Dispatch

Norovirus Surveillance among Callers to Foodborne Illness Complaint Hotline, Minnesota, USA, 2011–2013

Amy A. SaupeComments to Author , Dawn Kaehler, Elizabeth A. Cebelinski, Brian Nefzger, Aron J. Hall, and Kirk E. Smith
Author affiliations: Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA (A.A. Saupe, D. Kaehler, E.A. Cebelinski, B. Nefzger, K.E. Smith); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (A.J. Hall)

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Table 1

Demographics, signs and symptoms, and epidemiologic characteristics for callers to foodborne illness hotline, Minnesota, USA, October 2011–January 2013*

Characteristic All symptom-eligible complainants
Complainants tested for norovirus
Tested, n = 241 Not tested,† n = 700 p value‡ Positive, n = 127 Negative, n = 114 p value‡
Age, y (range) 44 (0–88) 43 (1–91) 0.62 44 (1–88) 44 (0–88) 0.49
Duration, h (range) 30.80 (0.25–205.30) 29.0 (0.1–302.0) 0.63 36.0 (9.5–121.0) 18.00 (0.25–205.30) 0.002
Female sex 138 (57.3) 405 (58.1) 0.82 71 (55.9) 67 (58.8) 0.65
Signs and symptoms
Diarrhea 193 (81.4) 521 (81.0) 0.30 103 (83.0) 90 (79.6) 0.50
Vomiting 183 (76.3) 513 (74.0) 0.50 110 (87.3) 73 (64.0) <0.001
Bloody stools 9 (4.5) 23 (4.3) 0.94 2 (2.0) 7 (7.0) 0.09
Fever 81 (45.0) 152 (30.6) <0.001 46 (52.9) 35 (37.6) 0.04
Onset during norovirus season§ 172 (71.4) 486 (69.4) 0.57 108 (85.0) 64 (56.1) <0.001
Health care visit 14 (6.5) 91 (13.5) 0.006 6 (5.6) 8 (7.5) 0.58
Outbreak associated¶ 30 (12.4) 53 (7.6) 24 (18.9) 6 (5.3)

*Values are no. (%) except as indicated. Symptom-eligible complainants were callers who reported diarrhea (>3 loose stools in 24 h) or vomiting. Denominators vary because of missing data. Boldface indicates significance.
†Includes all complainants eligible to submit a sample on the basis of symptom profile alone (symptom eligibility) as well as complainants not eligible to submit a stool sample for testing based on other eligibility criteria.
‡χ2 test was used for categorical variables; Fisher exact test used when expected cell frequencies were <5; Wilcoxon 2-sample test was used for comparison of medians.
§Season defined as October–March.
¶One complainant per outbreak identified through the hotline was included in analyses, if otherwise eligible.

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