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Volume 19, Number 9—September 2013

Research

New Estimates of Incidence of Encephalitis in England

Julia Granerod1Comments to Author , Simon Cousens, Nicholas W.S. Davies1, Natasha S. Crowcroft1, and Sara L. Thomas
Author affiliations: Public Health England, London, UK (J. Granerod); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (S. Cousens, S.L. Thomas); Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (N.W.S. Davies); Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (N.S. Crowcroft)

Main Article

Table 2

Characteristics of HES-only admissions compared with those that matched to PHE study cases and characteristics of cases included in the PHE study only compared with those of PHE study cases that matched to HES, England, November 1, 2006–October 31, 2007*

Characteristics HES

PHE study
HES only, n = 380 Matched,† n = 59 p value PHE only, n = 54 Matched,‡ n = 59 p value§
Age group†
<1 14 (77.8) 4 (22.2) 0.11§ 5 (55.6) 4 (44.4) 0.22
1–4 23 (71.9) 9 (28.1) 5 (38.5) 8 (61.5)
5–19 51 (86.4) 8 (13.6) 6 (40) 9 (60)
20–44 113 (85.6) 19 (14.4) 15 (44.1) 19 (55.9)
45–64 115 (88.5) 15 (11.5) 9 (39.1) 14 (60.9)
>65
52 (92.9)
4 (7.1)


14 (73.7)
5 (26.3)

Sex
M 192 (86.9) 29 (13.1) 0.89§ 34 (54) 29 (46) 0.18
F
188 (86.2)
30 (13.8)


20 (40)
30 (60)

Ethnicity**
White 248 (86.7) 38 (13.3) 0.2§ 40 (48.8) 42 (51.2) 0.66
Mixed 2 (100) 0 2 (50) 2 (50)
Asian or Asian British 23 (82.1) 5 (17.9) 1 (16.7) 5 (83.3)
Black or black British 27 (87.1) 4 (12.9) 8 (50) 8 (50)
Chinese or other
12 (66.7)
6 (33.3)


2 (50)
2 (50)

Etiology
Herpes simplex virus 13 (46.4) 15 (53.6) <0.001§ 8 (33.3) 16 (66.7) 0.01
Varicella zoster virus 25 (89.3) 3 (10.7) 2 (50) 2 (50)
Other specified viral 37 (88.1) 5 (11.9) 3 (50) 3 (50)
Bacterial 10 (71.4) 4 (28.6) 12 (80) 3 (20)
Parasitic 7 (100) 0 2 (100) 0
Amoebic 0 0 0 0
Fungal 0 0 0 0
Immune-mediated 37 (82.2) 8 (17.8) 5 (21.7) 18 (78.3)
Unknown 218 (91.2) 21 (8.8) 21 (56.8) 16 (43.2)
Other mixed
33 (91.7)
3 (8.3)


1 (50)
1 (50)

Admission type
Elective 119 (95.2) 6 (4.8) 0.001§
Emergency 218 (83.5) 43 (16.5)
Transfer††
43 (81.1)
10 (18.9)





Discharge destination‡‡
Home 272 (86.3) 43 (13.7) 0.85§
Other hospital/nursing home 37 (84.1) 7 (15.9)
Died
40 (85.1)
7 (14.9)





Treatment specialty
Neurosurgery 38 (100) 0 <0.001¶
General medicine 65 (81.2) 15 (18.8)
Neurology 121 (90.3) 13 (9.7)
Pediatrics 27 (73) 10 (27)
Pediatric neurology 22 (75.9) 7 (24.1)
Infectious diseases 11 (68.8) 5 (31.2)
Intensive care medicine 10 (71.4) 4 (28.6)
Other
86 (94.5)
5 (5.5)





Median length of stay, d (range) 11 (0–737); n = 351 31 (0–414);§§ n = 57 <0.001#

*Values are no. (%) except as indicated. HES, Hospital Episode Statistics; PHE, Public Health England.
†Using data from HES.
‡Using data from the PHE study.
§Fisher exact test.
¶χ2 test.
#Mann Whitney test.
**For HES only. n = 312; HES matched, n = 53; PHE only n = 53.
††Transfer from other hospital, excluding emergency.
‡‡For HES matched, n = 57.
§§For HES only, n = 368.

Main Article

1On behalf of the United Kingdom Public Health England Aetiology of Encephalitis Study Group (members listed at the end of this article).

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