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Volume 19, Number 9—September 2013

Research

Antigenic and Molecular Characterization of Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Viruses, Bangladesh

Karthik Shanmuganatham, Mohammed M. Feeroz, Lisa Jones-Engel, Gavin J.D. Smith, Mathieu Fourment, David Walker, Laura McClenaghan, S.M. Rabiul Alam, M. Kamrul Hasan, Patrick Seiler, John Franks, Angie Danner, Subrata Barman, Pamela McKenzie, Scott Krauss, Richard J. Webby, and Robert G. WebsterComments to Author 
Author affiliations: St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA (K. Shanmuganatham, D. Walker, L. McClenaghan, P. Seiler, J. Franks, A. Danner, S. Barman, P. McKenzie, S. Krauss, R.J. Webby, R.G. Webster); Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh (M.M. Feeroz, S.M.R. Alam, M.K. Hasan); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA (L. Jones-Engel); Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore (G.J.D. Smith, M. Fourment); Duke Global Health Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA (G.J.D. Smith)

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Table 3

Antigenic analyses of avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses isolated from poultry in Bangladesh during 2008–2011 compared with reference strains*

Viruses and designations HI titers† obtained with reference ferret hyperimmune serum directed against
G1 clade
Y280 Clade
G1 clade
Bangladesh subtype H9N2 viruses
Qa/HK/G1/97 HK/1073/97 Ck/HK/G9/97 Ck/Bei/1/94 Ck/Pk (Swabi)/NARC/2434/06 BD/0994/11 Env/BD/600/08 Env/BD/5473/09 Env/BD/907/09
Reference viruses and designation
A/Qa/HK/G1/97 160 320
A/Ck/HK/G9/97 40 80 640 320 160 160 80 80
A/Ck/Beijing/1/94 80
A/HK/1073/97 (human) 80 320
A/Ck/Pk(Swabi)/NARC–2434/06 80 160 320 320 2,560 2,560 2,560 1,280 320
A/BD/0994/2011 (human) 80 160 160 320 1,280 2,560 1,280 640 160
A/Env/BD/600/2008 (chicken) 80 160 160 320 1,280 2,560 1,280 1,280 160
A/Env/BD/907/2009 (quail) 40 80 40 40 80 80 40 160
A/Env/BD/5473/2009 (chicken)
80
160

320
320

2,560

2,560
2,560
1,280
640
Bangladesh isolates
From chickens, n = 27‡
A/Ck/BD/2075/2009 80 160 320 640 2,560 1,280 640 160
A/Ck/BD/5209/2009 40 160 320 320 1,280 2,560 2,560 640 320
A/Env/BD/8202/2010 (chicken) 80 160 320 320 1,280 1,280 1,280 640 320
A/Env/BD/8465/2010 (chicken) 160 320 640 320 2,560 >5,120 2,560 2,560 320
A/Ck/BD/8725/2010 80 160 320 320 1,280 2,560 1,280 640 160
A/Ck/BD/9334/2010 40 80 160 160 640 1,280 640 320 160
A/Env/BD/10234/2011 (chicken) 40 160 320 320 1,280 >5,120 2,560 1,280 320
A/Ck/BD/10450/2011 80 160 320 320 640 1,280 640 1,280 160
A/Ck/BD/11309/2011 40 160 320 320 1,280 2,560 1,280 1,280 320
A/Ck/BD/13962/2011 40 160 160 320 320 640 1,280 320 80
From quail, n = 10‡                  
A/Env/BD/5144/ 2009 (quail) 40 40 40 160 160 160 80 40
A/Env/BD /10306/2011 (quail) 40 160 40 40 40 40 80
A/Env/BD/10316/2011 (quail) 160 320 80 80 160 80 80 80 80
A/Env/BD/12103/ 2011 (quail) 40 40 40 40 40 40 40
A/Env/BD/12116/ 2011 (quail)
A/Env/BD/12119/2011 (quail) 80 160 80 80 80 160 80 80 80
From other poultry species, n = 7‡                  
A/Env/BD/1041/2009 (duck)
A/Dk/BD/1231/2009 40 160 160 320 1,280 2,560 1,280 640 320
A/Pi/BD/4303/2009 40 160 160 160 640 2,560 1,280 640 160
A/Env/BD/12068/2011 (pigeon) 160 160 40 80 80 80 40 40 80
A/Env/BD/9306/2010 (parrot) 80 160 160 320 640 2,560 1,280 640 320
A/Env/BD/12077/2011 (turkey) 40 160 320 320 1,280 >5,120 2,560 640 320

*Boldface indicates homologous serum. HI, hemagglutination inhibition.
†HI tests were performed according to standard procedures (27).Titers are expressed as the reciprocal of the highest dilution of the last dilution that completely inhibited hemagglutination of 0.5% chicken erythrocytes.
‡Total number of influenza (H9N2) isolates with a similar HI pattern.

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