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Volume 20, Number 4—April 2014

Research

Ciprofloxacin Resistance and Gonorrhea Incidence Rates in 17 Cities, United States, 1991–2006

Harrell W. ChessonComments to Author , Robert D. Kirkcaldy, Thomas L. Gift, Kwame Owusu-Edusei, and Hillard S. Weinstock
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Variables used in regression analyses of ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates in 17 cities, United States, 1991–2006*

Variable Mean (SD) Description Source
Ciprofloxacin resistance 0.028 (0.070) Fraction of GISP isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥1 μg/mL) in GISP clinic(s) in given city GISP
Gonorrhea incidence rate (log) 5.60 (0.911) Log of city’s reported gonorrhea incidence rate (cases/100,000 persons) CDC
Syphilis rate (log) 2.07 (1.22) Log of city’s reported primary and secondary syphilis rate (cases/100,000 persons) CDC
% Black 24.3 (21.6) % of city population that is black Census
% 15–29 y of age 21.7 (1.6) % of city population that is 15–29 y of age Census
Robbery rate 589 (356) No. reported offenses/100,000 persons FBI
Unemployment rate 6.07 (1.99) % of city’s labor force not employed BLS
Per capita income $36,483 ($5,788) Per capita personal income in the city’s respective metropolitan statistical area (2006 dollars) BEA
City variables NA Binary (dummy) variables for each city Created
Year variables NA Binary (dummy) variables for each year Created

*For simplicity, we describe our study as a city-level analysis, although the data we analyzed were comprised of a mixture of sources at the city level, county level, and metropolitan statistical area. The dataset consisted of 1 observation/city/year during 1991–2006. Gonorrhea and syphilis incidence rates, % Black, and % 15–29 y of age were obtained from surveillance records and US Census Bureau data maintained by CDC (Atlanta, GA, USA) (13). We added 1 to the syphilis rate before taking the log. The city-specific data obtained from CDC were derived from county data and may only approximate city jurisdictions. City-specific resistance was based on resistance reported in GISP. Robbery rates and unemployment rates were based on city-level data, and per capita income was based on metropolitan statistical area data (www.ucrdatatool.gov, http://www.bls.gov/data and http://bea.gov/, respectively). Per capita income was updated to 2006 US dollars by using the all items component of the consumer price index (www.bls.gov/cpi/data.htm). For ease of display of regression coefficients, the unemployment rate was entered into the regression analyses as the no. persons unemployed/100 in the labor force, robbery rates were entered as the no. offenses/100 population, and income was entered in $100,000s (e.g., $36,483 was entered as 36.48). GISP, Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FBI, Federal Bureau of Investigation; BLS, Bureau of Labor Statistics; BEA, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

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