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Volume 20, Number 5—May 2014

Letter

Serologic Evidence of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Northern Sea Otters

Zhu-Nan Li, Hon S. Ip, Jessica F. Trost, C. LeAnn White, Michael J. Murray, Paul J. Carney, Xiang-Jie Sun, James Stevens, Min Z. Levine, and Jacqueline M. KatzComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (Z.-N. Li, J.F. Trost, P.J. Carney, X.-J. Sun, J. Stevens, M.Z. Levine, J.M. Katz); United States Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA (H.S. Ip, C.L. White); Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California, USA (M.J. Murray)

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Figure

Results of ELISA and hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) testing for influenza viruses in serum samples from northern sea otters captured off the coast of Washington, USA, during studies conducted in August 2011 (n = 30) and 2001–2002 (n = 21). A) IgG for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain A/Texas/05/2009 detected by using standard indirect ELISA techniques with HRP-Protein A (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA). The ELISA titer was read as the reciprocal of the highest dilution of serum with an OD450nm of >0.2

Figure. Results of ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing for influenza viruses in serum samples from northern sea otters captured off the coast of Washington, USA, during studies conducted in August 2011 (n = 30) and 2001–2002 (n = 21)A) IgG for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain A/Texas/05/2009 detected by using standard indirect ELISA techniques with HRP-Protein A (Sigma, StLouis, MO, USA)The ELISA titer was read as the reciprocal of the highest dilution of serum with an OD450nm of >0.2 and 2-fold higher than the OD450nm of control wells lacking serumB) HI for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain A/Mexico/4108/2009HI titers were determined by using 0.5% turkey red blood cells (RBCs) for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, seasonal influenza A(H1N1), influenza (H3N2), and influenza B viruses that circulated in North America during 2000–2011 and by using 1% horse RBCs supplemented with 0.5% BSA for avian influenza A(H1N1) virus strain A/duck/New York/96HI assay was performed as described (www.who.int/influenza/gisrs_laboratory/manual_diagnosis_surveillance_influenza/en)OD, optical density.

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