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Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014

Dispatch

Risk Factors for Severe Influenza A–Related Pneumonia in Adult Cohort, Mexico, 2013–14

Alejandro Gómez-GómezComments to Author , Martin Magaña-Aquino, Sofía Bernal-Silva, Javier Araujo-Meléndez, Andreu Comas-García, Emma Alonso-Zúñiga, Eliana Torres-Torres, and Daniel E. Noyola
Author affiliations: Hospital Central “Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto,” San Luis Potosí, Mexico (A. Gómez-Gómez, M. Magaña-Aquino, J. Araujo-Meléndez); Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Mexico (A. Comas-García); Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí (A. Gómez-Gómez, M. Magaña-Aquino, S. Bernal-Silva, J. Araujo-Meléndez, E. Alonso-Zúñiga, E. Torres-Torres, D. E. Noyola)

Main Article

Table 1

Characteristics of 102 patients with severe pneumonia who required mechanical ventilation compared with patients who did not require mechanical ventilation, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, 2013–14*

Characteristic Without mechanical ventilation (n = 50) With mechanical ventilation (n = 52) p value
Age, y, mean (SD) 42.8 (13.6) 46.2 (13.3)
Gender, no. (%)
M 25 (50) 25 (48.1%) 0.21
F 25 (50) 27 (51.9%) 0.85
Presence of ≥1 underlying conditions, no. (%) 38 (76) 44 (84.6%) 0.27
Obesity (body mass index >30) † 23 (46.9) 39 (76.5%) 0.002
Diabetes mellitus 12 (24) 11 (21.2%) 0.73
Immunosuppression‡ 4 (8) 5 (9.6%) 1.0
Asthma-COPD-bronchiectasis 8 (16) 1 (1.9%) 0.01
Other § 9 (18) 3 (5.8%) 0.06
Underlying disorders, excluding obesity, no. (%) 27 (54) 21 (40.4%) 0.17
Influenza vaccination during most recent season, no. (%) 8 (16) 0 0.002
Signs and symptoms, no. (%)
Fever 49 (98) 52 (100%) 0.49
Headache 45 (90) 49 (94.2%) 0.48
Cough 50 (100) 52 (100%) NA
Myalgias 46 (92) 46 (88.5%) 0.74
Dyspnea 50 (100) 52 (100%) NA
Blood-streaked sputum 14 (28) 15 (28.8%) 0.92
Diarrhea 9 (18) 6 (11.5%) 0.36
Clinical findings, mean (SD)
Body mass index* 29.6 (4.8) 31.9 (3.9) 0.01
Respiratory rate, bpm 26.4 (3.3) 30.3 (5) <0.001
Cardiac rate, bpm 102.6 (12.4) 109.2 (16.9) 0.03
Mean blood pressure, mmHg 80.6 (11.3) 74.2 (14.6) 0.01
Temperature, °C 38.5 (0.5) 38.5 (0.5) 0.42
PaO2/FiO2 236 (49.2) 119.8 (43.8) <0.001
Laboratory findings, mean (SD)
Total WBCs, x103/μL† 8.1 (4.3) 7.4 (3.9) 0.39
Lymphocytes, x103/μL† 1.2 (0.75) 0.84 (0.64) 0.01
Platelet count, x103/μL† 223.5 (93.1) 212.4 (125.4) 0.62
C-reactive protein, mg/dL† 12.9 (8.8) 19.7 (11.6) 0.001
Lactate dehydrogenase, U/L # 406.8 (416.6) 694.6 (547.4) 0.006
CPK, U/L ** 349.5 (760.1) 575.9 (544.4) 0.1
Symptom onset
Duration of symptoms before dyspnea, d, mean (SD) 2.8 (2.8) 3.1 (3.3) 0.67
Dyspnea duration before admission, d, mean (SD) 3.9 (2.8) 3.7 (2.7) 0.75
Duration of symptoms before hospital admission, d, mean (SD) 6.7 (3.8) 6.6 (3.5) 0.99

*Statistical analyses used included Fisher exact test, χ2 test, and Student t test. SD, standard deviation; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PaO2/FiO2, partial pressure arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen ratio; CPK, creatine phosphokinase; U/L, units per liter.
†Data available for 100 patients
‡Immunosuppressed patients include patients with autoimmune disorders (4 cases; one of them with renal transplantation), HIV infection (3 cases), lymphoma (1 case), and chronic renal failure (1 case).
§Other disorders include cardiopathy (5 cases), Down syndrome (3 cases; 1 with cardiopathy), hypothyroidism (3 cases), pregnancy (1 case), and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (1 case)
¶Data available for 98 patients
#Data available for 93 patients
**Data available for 91 patients

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