Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 3, Number 2—June 1997

Perspective

The Economic Impact of a Bioterrorist Attack: Are Prevention and Postattack Intervention Programs Justifiable?

Arnold F. Kaufmann, Martin I. MeltzerComments to Author , and George P. Schmid
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Costs of hospitalization and outpatient visits (OPVs) following a bioterrorist attack

Anthrax
Tularemia
Brucellosis
Base Upper Base Upper Base Upper
Hospitalized patient
Days in hospital 7 7 10 10 7 7
Cost per day ($)a 556 669 556 669 556 669
Lost productivity ($/day) 65 65 65 65 65 65
Follow-up OPVs (no.) 2 2 2 2 7 7
Cost 1st OPV ($) 28 44 28 44 28 44
Cost other OPVs, ea. ($) 13 24 13 24 13 24
OPV laboratory ($)b,c 87 174 87 174 131 261
OPV x-rays costs ($)d 66 66 0 0 0 0
Lost productivity ($/OPV)e 16 16 16 16 16 16
Total costs ($) 4,541 5,380 6,338 7,582 4,584 5,587
Avg. costs/day ($/day) 649 769 634 758 655 798
% increase: Base to upper estimate 18 20 22
Nonhospitalized patient
Number of OPVs 7 7 12 12 14 14
Cost 1st OPV ($) 28 44 28 44 28 44
Cost other OPVs, ea. ($) 13 24 13 24 13 24
Lost productivity ($/OPV)e 16 16 16 16 16 16
Laboratory costs ($)b,f 131 174 261 522 261 522
X-ray costs ($)d 66 66 66 66 66 66
Drugs usedg D C D+G D+G D+R D+R+G
Cost of drugs ($) 6 181 29 29 220 246
Total costs ($) 422 810 722 1,120 972 1,418
Avg. costs/day ($/day) 60 116 60 93 69 101
% increase: Base to upper estimate 93 55 46

Notes: All costs rounded to the nearest whole dollar.
aHospital costs assumed to include all costs such as drugs, laboratory tests, and x-rays.
bLaboratory tests consists of general health panel (CPT code 80050) and an antigen or antibody test (modeled on the cost of a Streptococcus screen, CPT code 86588).
cFollow-up OPVs for hospitalized patients included two laboratory test sets for anthrax and tularemia patients and three laboratory test sets for brucellosis patients.
dX-ray costs (CPT code 71021), included two sets taken at different OPVs.
eProductivity lost due to an OPV was assumed to be one-quarter of an unspecified day's value.
fFor OPVs of nonhospitalized patients, one set of laboratory tests is assumed for every two visits.
gDrugs used: D = doxycycline; C = ciprofloxacin; R = rifampin.
Sources: See text for explanation of sources of cost estimates.

Main Article

TOP