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Volume 3, Number 2—June 1997

Synopsis

Hantaviruses: A Global Disease Problem

Connie Schmaljohn*Comments to Author  and Brian Hjelle
Author affiliations: *United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, USA; and †University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA

Main Article

Table 2

Distinguishing clinical characteristics for HFRS and HPS

Disease Pathogens Distinguishing Characteristics*
HFRS (moderate-severe)
Death rate 1%-15% HTN, SEO, DOB hemorrhage +++
azotemia/
proteinuria +++/++++
pulmonary capillary leak +/++
myositis +/+++
conjunctival injection ++/++++
eye pain/myopia ++/++++
HFRS (mild)
Death rate <1% PUU hemorrhage +
azotemia/
proteinuria +/++++
pulmonary capillary leak -/+
myositis +
conjunctival injection +
eye pain/myopia ++/++++
HPS (prototype)
Death rate >40% SN, NY hemorrhage +
zotemia/
proteinuria +
pulmonary capillary leak ++++
myositis -
conjunctival injection -/+
eye pain/myopia -
HPS (renal variant)
Death rate>40% BAY, BCC, Andes hemorrhage +
azotemia/
proteinuria ++/+++
pulmonary capillary leak +++/++++
myositis ++/++++
conjunctival injection -/++
eye pain/myopia -

*Minimum/maximum occurrence of the characteristic: - rarely reported;
+ infrequent or mild manifestation; ++, +++, ++++ more frequent and severe manifestation.

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