Volume 3, Number 3—September 1997
Host Genes and HIV: The Role of the Chemokine Receptor Gene CCR5 and Its Allele (∆32 CCR5)
|(MCP-1Ra) Receptors (Old names)a||C-C chemokines||CXC chemokines||Predominant expression/Tissue distribution||Pathogensb||Chromosome location||GenBank Acc. #|
|CCR1 (CC CKR1)||αβ, RANTES, MCP-3||monocytes, T cells||3p21||L10918|
|CCR2A||MCP-1||T cells, basophils, monocytes||3p21||U03882|
|CCR2B (MCP-1Rb)||MCP-1, 3, 4||HIV-1 (NSI)||U03905|
|CCR3 (CKR3)||Eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-2,3,4||eosinophil, basophils, microglial cells, and possibly monocytes; little expression in peripheral blood T-lymphocytes or dendritic cells||HIV-1 (NSI)||3p21||U28694|
|CCR4||TARC||basophils, T cells||3p24||X85740|
|CCR5c (CC CKR5)||RANTES, MIP-1αβ||monocytes, dendritic cells, microglial cells, T cells||HIV-1 (NSI), HIV-2||3p21||U57840|
|CXCR1 (IL-8 RA)||IL-8||neutrophils, NK cells||2q35||M68932|
|CXCR2 (IL-8 RB)||IL-8, MGSA, gro-α , NAP-2, IP-10, ENA-78, Mig||M73969|
|CXCR3||IP-10, Mig||activated T cells||X95876|
|CXCR4 (Fusin, LESTR, HUMSTR)||SDF-1||wide: CD4+ and CD4- cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells; other tissues, e.g., brain, lung, spleen||HIV-1 (SI) HIV-2||2q21||M99293|
|DARC (Duffy antigen)||RANTES, MCP-1, TARC etc.||IL-8, MGSA, gro-α etc.||endothelial cells, erythrocytes||Plasmodium vivax||1||U01839|
|STRL33||ND||ND||lymphoid tissues and activated T cells||HIV-1||3||U73529|
|HCMV-US28||MIP-1αβ, RANTES||fibroblasts infected with CMV||HIV-1||N/A||X17403|
|ChemR1||ND||ND||T lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear cells||3p21-24||Y08456|
|CMKBRL1||ND||ND||neutrophils, monocytes, brain, liver, lung, skeletal muscles||3p21||U28934|
|V28||ND||ND||Neural and lymphoid tissue||3p21||U20350|
|D2S201E||ND||ND||wide, including cells of hemopoietic origin||2q21||M99293|
a New nomenclature for CC and CXC chemokine receptors was adopted at the Gordon Research Conference on Chemotactic Cytokines, June 23-28, 1996.
bPathogens using this receptor for infection.
cThe 32bp deleted allele of CCR5 has been referred to as CCR5-2 (19).
dChemokine receptor-like genes whose predicted proteins have 7 transmembrane domains.
Abbreviations: BLR1, Burkitt's lymphoma receptor-1; CMKBRL1, Chemokine β receptor like-1; DARC, duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines; EBI1, Epstein-Barr virus-induced receptor; ENA78, epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide-78; GPR, G protein coupled receptor; gro, growth related gene product; HCMV, human cytomegalovirus; HUMSTR, human serum transmembrane segment receptor; IL, interleukin; IP-10, interferon-gamma inducible 10kD protein; LESTR, leukocyte-expressed seven-transmembrane-domain receptor; MCP, monocyte chemotactic protein; Mig, monokine induced by interferon gamma; MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein; NSI, non-syncytium inducing; N/A, not applicable; NAP-2, neutrophil-activating protein-2; ND, not determined; RANTES, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted; SDF-1, stromal cell-derived factor-1; STRL33, seven transmembrane-domain receptor from lymphocyte clone 33; TARC, thymus and activation regulated chemokine.
1Garred P, Eugen-Olsen J, Iversen AKN, Benfield TL, Svejgaard A, Hofmann, B, the Copenhagen AIDS Study Group. Dual effect of CCR5 D32 gene deletion in HIV-1-infected patients. Lancet 1997; 349:1884.
2Martinson JJ, Chapman NH, Rees DC, Lui Y-T, Clegg JB. Global distribution of the CCR5 gene 32-basepair deletion [letter]. Nature Genetics 1997;16:100-103.
3Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Facts about CCR5 and protection against HIV-1 infection; 1997.