Introduction of HIV-2 and Multiple HIV-1 Subtypes to Lebanon
Danuta Pieniazek* , James Baggs†, Dale J. Hu*, Ghassan M. Matar‡, Alexander M. Abdelnoor‡, Jacques E. Mokhbat‡, Marwan Uwaydah‡, Abdul Rahman Bizri‡, Artur Ramos*§, Luiz M. Janini*§, Amilcar Tanuri*§, Carol Fridlund*, Charles Schable*, Leo Heyndrickx¶, Mark A. Rayfield*, and Walid Heneine*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA;†Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA;‡American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon;§Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and¶Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
Figure 2. Phylogenetic classification of HIV-1 sequences from Lebanese patients denoted with LE prefix (GenBank accession nos. AF025691- AF025745). The trees were constructed on the basis of the DNA sequences of prot (a), env (b and c), and gag (d) by the maximum- likelihood method. Numbers at the branch nodes connected with subtypes indicate bootstrap values. Env trees: (b) includes all 25 Lebanese sequences of 325 bp and reference sequences from eight subtypes A through H; and (c) includes only Lebanese LE7 sequence of 216 bp and marker sequences from subtypes A through J. Arrows indicate Lebanese samples that clustered in different lineages depending on which parts of their genome were analyzed. The distinct HIV-1 subtypes are delineated. ? represents the unclassified position of prot and env sequences of sample LE7. The scale bar indicates an evolutionary distance of 0.10 nucleotides per position in the sequence. Vertical distances are for clarity only.
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